Product & Service   Service locations   Our teams

Scottish independence referendum, 2014
2014年蘇格蘭獨立公民投票_中英對照(By ABDC)

From Wikipedia 
維基百科
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_independence_referendum,_2014
投票資格

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_independence_referendum,_2014#Eligibility_to_vote
公民投票的目標與想像
您能想像公民投票(直接民權)對我們整體生活能有那些幫助嗎 ?

http://www.chromnet.net/公民投票的應用與想像.aspx 

The Scottish independence referendum was a referendum on Scottish independence that took place in Scotland on 18 September 2014.[1]
The independence referendum question, which voters answered with "Yes" or”No", was "Should Scotland be an independent country?"
The”No" side won, with 55.3% voting against independence.

The turnout of 84.6% was unusually high for a ballot in the United Kingdom.
The Scottish Independence Referendum Bill, setting out the arrangements for this referendum, was passed by the Scottish Parliament in November 2013, following an agreement between the Scottish and the United Kingdom governments, and was enacted as the Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013.

To pass, the independence proposal required a simple majority.  

"蘇格蘭獨立公民投票" 2014918日發生在蘇格蘭的一個蘇格蘭獨立議題上的公民投票[1]
這個選民回答“是" 或”否" 的獨立公民投票題目是蘇格蘭應該成為一個獨立的國家嗎?"
以反對獨立的55.3%投票, "否" 方獲勝.
對於英國的投票, 84.6%的投票率是非常高的.

發起安排這次公民投票的蘇格蘭獨立公民投票法案", 由蘇格蘭議會於201311月通過, 接著由蘇格蘭和英國政府之間達成的協議, 並制定為”2013年蘇格蘭獨立公民投票法".

要通過, 此獨立提案需要獲得的簡單多數. 

With some exceptions, all European Union (EU) or Commonwealth citizens resident in Scotland aged 16 or over could vote, a total of almost 4.3 million people.
Yes Scotland was the main campaign group for independence, while Better Together was the main campaign group in favour of maintaining the union. Many other campaign groups, political parties, businesses, newspapers and prominent individuals were also involved.
Prominent issues raised by the Better Together campaign during the referendum included which currency an independent Scotland would use, public expenditure, EU membership, and North Sea oil.

除了有一些例外, 所有居住在蘇格蘭, 16歲或以上的 歐洲聯盟(EU)或英聯邦國家公民可以投票, 共有近430萬人. "是的  蘇格蘭" 是主要的獨立訴求的競選群組, 而"在一起  比較好" 是贊成維持聯盟的主要競選群組. 還牽涉到很多其他的競選活動的團體, 政黨, 企業, 報紙和知名人士. 公民投票期間由"在一起  比較好"競選群組提出的突出議題包括, 獨立的蘇格蘭將使用哪些貨幣, 公共開支, 歐盟成員國, 以及北海石油. 

Contents  目錄
1 History 
歷史
1.1 Formation of Scotland and the United Kingdom 
蘇格蘭和英國的形成
1.2 Devolution 
權力下放
1.3 2007 SNP administration  2007
蘇格蘭民族黨執政
1.4 2011 SNP administration  2011
蘇格蘭民族黨執政
2 Administration 
管理
2.1 Date 
日期
2.2 Eligibility to vote 
投票資格 
2.3 Legality of a referendum  
公民投票的合法性
2.4 Electoral oversight 
選舉監督
2.5 Referendum wording 
公民投票的用辭
2.6 Campaign structures 
競選活動結構 
2.7 Voting process 
投票程序
2.8 Outcome of the vote 
投票結果

3 Issues  議題
3.1 Agriculture 
農業
3.2 Border controls and immigration 
邊境管制和移民
3.3 Childcare 
幼保
3.4 Citizenship 
公民
3.5 Defence 
國防
3.6 Democracy 
民主
3.7 Economy 
經濟
3.8 Energy 
能源
3.9 European Union 
歐盟
3.10 Health care 
醫療保健
3.11 International relations 
國際關係
3.12 Monarchy 
君主制
3.13 Pensions 
退休金
3.14 Sport 
運動
3.15 Status of Northern and Western Isles 
北部和西部群島的狀態
3.16 Universities 
大學
3.17 Welfare 
福利 
4 Responses 
反應
4.1 Demonstrations 
遊行
4.2 Online campaigns 
網上競選活動
4.3 Debates 
辯論
4.4 Accusations of BBC bias 
對於BBC偏見的指責
5 Opinion polling 
民意調查
6 Voting 
投票
6.1 Administration 
管理
6.2 Voting places and times 
投票地點和時間
6.3 Count of votes 
計票
7 Results 
結果
7.1 Totals 
總計
7.2 By area 
區域 

8 Reactions to the result  結果的反應
8.1 Domestic reaction 
國內反應
8.2 International reaction 
國際反應
8.3 Allegations of voting irregularities 
投票違規行為的指控
8.4 Violence in Glasgow 
Glasgow的暴力事件
8.5 Increase in political activism 
政治活動的增加
8.6 Further devolution 
進一步下放 

9 See also  參見
10 References 
參考

11 External links  外部鏈接

Scotland 入口網站(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Scotland)
United Kingdom
入口網站(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:British_politics)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

History  歷史

Formation of Scotland and the United Kingdom蘇格蘭和英國的形成
Main article: History of the formation of the United Kingdom

The Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England were established as independent countries during the Middle Ages.
After fighting a series of wars during the 14th century, the two monarchies entered a personal union in 1603 (the Union of the Crowns) when James VI of Scotland also became James I of England.

The two nations were temporarily united under one government when Oliver Cromwell was declared Lord Protector of a Commonwealth in 1653, but this was dissolved when the monarchy was restored in 1660.

Scotland and England united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, factors in favour of union being, on the Scottish side, the economic problems caused by the failure of the Darien scheme and, on the English, securing the Hannoverian line of succession.

Great Britain in turn united with the Kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Most of Ireland left the Union in 1922 as the Irish Free State; thus the full name of the sovereign state today is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

主要文章:英國的形成史 

蘇格蘭王國與英格蘭王國在中世紀期間建立為獨立的國家. 14世紀打了一系列的戰爭後, 兩國君主於1603年進入了個人的聯盟(王冠聯盟)其時, 蘇格蘭的詹姆士六世也成為了英格蘭的詹姆斯一世.

1653年時, Oliver Cromwell被宣布為聯邦護國公, 這兩個國家暫時被聯合在一個政府之下,但這在1660在君主制恢復時就解散了.蘇格蘭和英格蘭在1707年聯合組成大不列顛王國, 支持聯合的因素, 在蘇格蘭方面有 Darien計劃失敗所引起的經濟問題, 以及, 在英格蘭方面有 確保Hannoverian的繼承脈絡.
英國又在1801年與愛爾蘭王國聯合, 形成了大不列顛和愛爾蘭聯合王國.大部份的愛爾蘭在1922年離開聯盟成愛爾蘭自由邦;因而今天這主權國家的全稱是大不列顛及北愛爾蘭聯合王國.
 

Devolution  下放
The Labour Party was committed to home rule for Scotland in the 1920s, but it slipped down its agenda in the following years.[2]
The Scottish National Party (SNP) was formed in 1934, but did not achieve significant electoral success until the 1960s.[2]

A document calling for home rule, the Scottish Covenant, was signed by 2 million people (out of a population of 5 million) in the late 1940s.[2]
Home rule, now known as Scottish devolution, did not become a serious proposal until the late 1970s as the Labour government of Jim Callaghan came under electoral pressure from the SNP.[2]

黨在1920年代, 致力於蘇格蘭的地方自治, 但它在隨後的幾年下滑了他的代辦事項.[2]
蘇格蘭民族黨(SNP)成立於1934, 但直到20世紀60年代, 並沒有取得選舉的顯著成功[2].

一個要求地方自治的文件, “蘇格蘭盟約", 200萬人在1940年代末簽署(出自500萬人口)[2]
地方自治, 現在被稱為蘇格蘭下放, 沒有成為嚴肅的提議, 直到1970年代末, Jim Callaghan的工黨政府面臨到來自SNP的選舉壓力[2]
 

A proposal for a devolved Scottish Assembly was put to a referendum in 1979.
A narrow majority of votes were cast in favour of change, but this had no effect due to a requirement that the number voting “Yes” had to exceed 40% of the total electorate.[3]
No further constitutional reform was proposed until Labour returned to power in 1997, when a second Scottish devolution referendum was held.[4] Clear majorities expressed support for both a devolved Scottish Parliament and that Parliament having the power to vary the basic rate of income tax.[4] The Scotland Act 1998 established the new Scottish Parliament, first elected on 6 May 1999,[5] with power to legislate on unreserved matters within Scotland.

一個"下權力下放力於蘇格蘭議會"的提議在1979年付諸公民投票.投出些微多數贊成改變的票數, 但這沒有作用, 因為要求投""的數量必須超過總選民術的40. [3]沒有進一步的憲政改革建議, 直到1997年工黨重新執政, 舉行了第二次蘇格蘭下放公民投票. 明確的多數表達支持權力下放蘇格蘭議會, 以及議會需有改變所得稅的基本稅率的權力.[4]
"
蘇格蘭法案1998" 建立了新的蘇格蘭議會, 199956日首次選出,[5] 具有蘇格蘭內非保留的事項的立法權.

2007 SNP administration
Further information: Government of the 3rd Scottish Parliament
A commitment to hold a referendum in 2010 was part of the SNP”s election manifesto when it contested the 2007 Scottish Parliament election.[6]
As a result of that election, it became the largest party in the Scottish Parliament and formed a minority government led by the First Minister, Alex Salmond.[7]
The SNP administration launched a “National Conversation” as a consultation exercise in August 2007, part of which included a draft referendum bill, the Referendum (Scotland) Bill.[7][8]
After this, a white paper for the proposed Referendum Bill was published, on 30 November 2009.[9][10]

2007 蘇格蘭民族黨執政
更多信息:第3蘇格蘭議會政府
當它競爭2007年的蘇格蘭議會選舉時, 承諾舉行2010公民投票, SNP的競選宣言的一部分.[6] 作為該次選舉的結果, 它成為蘇格蘭議會第一大黨, 並形成了由第一部長Alex Salmond領導的少數政府.[7]

SNP
政府於20078月推出了"全國對話" 作為一個諮詢, 其中一部分包括公民投票法草案,”公民投票(蘇格蘭)法案"[7] [8]
在此之後, 一個提出的公民投票法法案的白皮書於20091130日出版.[9] [10]

It detailed 4 possible scenarios, with the text of the Bill and Referendum to be revealed later.[9]
The scenarios were: no change; devolution per the Calman Review; further devolution; and full independence.[9]
The Scottish government published a draft version of the bill on 25 February 2010 for public consultation;[11][12]
Scotland”s Future: Draft Referendum (Scotland) Bill Consultation Paper contained a consultation document and a draft version of the bill.[13]
The consultation paper set out the proposed ballot papers, the mechanics of the proposed referendum, and how the proposed referendum was to be regulated.[13]
Public responses were invited.[14]
The bill outlined three proposals:
The first was full devolution or “devolution max”, suggesting that the Scottish Parliament should be responsible for”all laws, taxes and duties in Scotland", with the exception of”defence and foreign affairs; financial regulation, monetary policy and the currency",which would be retained by the British government.[13]

這詳述了4種可能出現的情況, 法案與公民投票的文本稍後才公佈.[9]情況是:沒有任何改變; 按照Calman審查的下放;進一步下放;以及, 完全獨立[9]
蘇格蘭政府在2010225日公佈了一個法案的草稿版本, 用於公眾諮詢;[11] [12]

蘇格蘭的未來:"公民投票草案(蘇格蘭)條例諮詢文件", 包含一份諮詢文件和一個該法案的草案版本.[13]
諮詢文件列入所用的選票的建議, 所提出的公民投票的機制, 並提出公民投票是如何被規範.[13]
公開回應有被邀請.[14]
該法案概述了三點建議:
第一是充分權力下放或最高權力下放", 這表明蘇格蘭議會應負責蘇格蘭的所有的法律, 稅收和關稅", "國防和外交事務; 金融監管, 貨幣政策和貨幣”, 這會是英國政府予以保留的.[13]

The second proposal outlined Calman-type fiscal reform, gaining the additional powers and responsibilities of setting a Scottish rate of income tax that could vary by up to 10p in the pound compared with the rest of the UK, setting the rate of stamp duty land tax and”other minor taxes", and introducing new taxes in Scotland with the agreement of the UK Parliament, and finally,”limited power to borrow money".[13]  

The third proposal was for full independence.[13]
In the third Scottish Parliament, only 50 of 129 MSPs (47 SNP, 2 Greens, and Margo MacDonald) supported a referendum.[15][16]
The Scottish government withdrew the bill after failing to secure opposition support.[7][17]
MSPs : Members of the Scottish Parliament(
蘇格蘭議會成員)

第二項建議概述Calman型財政改革, 獲得設定蘇格蘭的所得稅率的補充權力和責任, 與英國的其他地區相比, 在英鎊裏可以變動多達10便士,設置印花稅土地增值以及其他小稅種的稅率, 並在英國議會的同意下, 在蘇格蘭引入新的稅種, 以及, 終極地, “有限度的借款" [13] 
第三個建議是完全獨立的.[13]
 
在第三蘇格蘭議會, 只有129位中的50為的蘇格蘭議會成員(47 SNP, 2綠黨和Margo MacDonald)支持公民投票. [15] [16]
蘇格蘭政府在未能獲得反對黨的支持之後撤回法案. [7] [17]

MSPs : Members of the Scottish Parliament(
蘇格蘭議會成員)

2011 SNP administration
Further information: Government of the 4th Scottish Parliament
The SNP repeated its commitment to hold a referendum when it published its 2011 Scottish parliamentary election manifesto.[18]

Days before the election, Salmond stated that legislation for a referendum would be proposed in the”2nd half of the parliament", as he wanted to secure more powers for the Scottish Parliament via the Scotland Bill first.[19]

The SNP gained an overall majority in the election, winning 69 from 129 seats, thereby gaining a mandate to hold an independence referendum.[20][21]
In January 2012, the UK government offered to legislate to provide the Scottish Parliament with the powers to hold a referendum, providing it was”fair, legal and decisive".[21]

2011 蘇格蘭民族黨(SNP)執政
更多信息:第4蘇格蘭議會政府
 

SNP在公佈其2011年的蘇格蘭議會選舉宣言時, 重復了舉行公民投票承諾.[18]
大選前幾天, Salmond表示, 公民投票的立法 將在國會下半會期" 被提出, 因為他想先經由蘇格蘭法案, 為蘇格蘭議會爭取更多的權力.[19]

SNP
在選舉中獲得了多數席位, 129個席位中, 贏得69個席位, 從而獲得了舉行獨立公民投票的授權.[20][21]
20121,
20121, 英國政府提出立法, 以提供蘇格蘭議會舉行公民投票的權力, 只要它是 "公平, 合法和具有決定性的."[21]

This would set”terms of reference for the referendum", such as its question(s), elector eligibility and which body would organise the vote.[22]

As the UK government worked on legal details, including the timing of the vote, Salmond announced an intention to hold the referendum in the autumn of 2014.[22]
Negotiations continued between the two governments until October 2012, when the Edinburgh Agreement was reached.[7]
The Scottish Independence Referendum (Franchise) Act 2013 was passed by the Scottish Parliament on 27 June 2013 and received Royal Assent on 7 August 2013.[23]
On 15 November 2013, the Scottish government published Scotland”s Future, a 670-page white paper laying out the case for independence and the means through which Scotland might become an independent country.[24]

這將設定 "公民投票的參考項目", 例如其題目, 選民資格和那個機構將組織選舉.[22]
當英國政府在進行法律細節工作的時, 包括投票的時序, Salmond 宣布在2014年秋季舉行公民投票的意向.[22]
在這兩政府之間的搓商談判一直持續到201210, 在愛丁堡達成了協議.[7]

"蘇格蘭獨立公民投票(投票權)法案2013" 2013627, 由蘇格蘭議會通過, 872013年獲得御準[23]
20131115, 蘇格蘭政府公佈了 "蘇格蘭的未來", 一個670頁的白皮書, 鋪陳了獨立的情況以及經由它, 蘇格蘭有可能成為一個獨立的國家.[24]

Administration  管理
Date 
日期
The Scottish government announced on 21 March 2013 that the referendum would be held on 18 September 2014.[1]
Some media reports mentioned that 2014 would be the 700th anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn[25][26] and that Scotland would also host the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the 2014 Ryder Cup.[26]
Salmond agreed that the presence of these events made 2014 a”good year to hold a referendum".[27] 

蘇格蘭政府在2013321日宣布, 公民投票將於2014918[1]舉行.
有媒體報導指出, 2014年是Bannockburn戰爭的第700週年[25][26], 而蘇格蘭也將舉辦2014年英聯邦運動會和2014Ryder Cup.[26]
薩爾蒙德認為, 這些事件的存在, 使得2014年是 "舉行公民投票的好年". [27]

Eligibility to vote
Under the terms of the 2010 Draft Bill, the following people were entitled to vote in the referendum:[13]
British citizens who are resident in Scotland;
citizens of the 52 other Commonwealth countries who are resident in Scotland;
citizens of the 27 other European Union countries who are resident in Scotland;
members of the House of Lords who are resident in Scotland;
Service/Crown personnel serving in the UK or overseas in the British Armed Forces or with Her Majesty's Government who are registered to vote in Scotland.
Convicted prisoners were not able to vote in the referendum. The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) earlier ruled that this restriction was unlawful, but Scottish judge Lord Glennie said that he believed the ECHR judgment would apply only to parliamentary elections.[28]
Appeals against his ruling were rejected by the Court of Session in Edinburgh[29] and the UK Supreme Court.[30]

投票資格
根據2010年的法案草案的條款, 下列人員有權在公民投票中投票:[13]
居住在蘇格蘭的英國公民;
居住在蘇格蘭的其他52個英聯邦國家的公民;
居住在蘇格蘭的其他27個歐盟國家的公民;
居住在蘇格蘭的上議院成員;
在英國或海外的英國武裝部隊服務或任職的人員或英國政府註冊在蘇格蘭投票. 
被定罪的囚犯不能在公民投票中投票. 歐洲人權法院(歐洲人權公約)早前裁定, 這種限制是非法的,
但蘇格蘭法官 Lord Glennie表示, 他相信歐洲人權法院的判決只適用於議會選舉.[28]不服他的裁決的上訴, 在愛丁堡[29]和英國最高法院的會議中被駁回.[30]

The normal voting age was reduced from 18 to 16 for the referendum, as it was SNP policy to reduce the voting age for all elections in Scotland.[13][31][32]
The move was supported by Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the Scottish Greens.[33][34]
In January 2012, Elaine Murray MSP of Labour led a debate arguing that the franchise should be extended to Scots living outside Scotland, including the approximately 800,000 living in the other parts of the UK.[35]
This was opposed by the Scottish Government, which argued that it would greatly increase the complexity of the referendum and stated that "there was evidence from the United Nations Human Rights Committee that other nations”might question the legitimacy of a referendum if the franchise is not territorial".[35]
In the House of Lords, Baroness Symons argued that the rest of the UK should be allowed to vote on Scottish independence, on the grounds that it would affect the whole country.
This argument was rejected by the British government, as the Advocate General for Scotland Lord Wallace said that“whether or not Scotland should leave the United Kingdom is a matter for Scotland".[35]
Wallace also pointed to the fact that only two of 11 referendums since 1973 had been across all of the United Kingdom.[35]
Professor John Curtice also argued that the Northern Ireland sovereignty referendum of 1973 created a precedent for allowing only those resident in one part of the UK to vote on its sovereignty.[36]

公民投票的正常投票年齡從18減少到16, 因為降低蘇格蘭所有選舉的投票年齡是SNP的政策.[13][31][32]
這一措施得到工黨, 自由民主黨和蘇格蘭綠黨的支持.[33][34]

2012
1, 工黨的MSP(蘇格蘭議會成員) Elaine Murray 主導一場辯論,主張的此投票權應該延伸到生活在蘇格蘭以外的蘇格蘭人, 包括居住在英國其他部分約80.[35]
這被蘇格蘭政府所反對, 認為這將大為增加對公民投票的複雜性, 並指出, 有來自 "聯合國人權委員會的證據表明, 如果特許權不是在本地內, 其他國家可能會質疑公民投票的合法性".[35]
在上議院, Symons男爵夫人說, 英國的其餘部分應被允許參與蘇格蘭獨立公投投票, 基於是它會影響到整個國家.
這個論點是被英國政府拒絕, 因為蘇格蘭總法律顧問 Wallace 法官說, "蘇格蘭是否應該離開英國是蘇格蘭"的事."[35]

Wallace
也指出了一個事實, 即自1973年以來, 11個之中的2個公民投票有在跨及全英國.[35]
John Curtice
教授也認為, 1973年的北愛爾蘭主權公民投票創造了一個只允許那些居住在英國的一個部分的人們做主權其的投票的先例.[36]

Legality of a referendum
There was debate as to whether the Scottish Parliament had the power to legislate for a referendum relating to the issue of Scottish independence, as the constitution is a reserved matter for the UK Parliament.[15]
The Scottish government insisted in 2010 that they could legislate for a referendum, as it would be an”advisory referendum on extending the powers of the Scottish Parliament",[14] whose result would”have no legal effect on the Union".[13]:17
Lord Wallace, Advocate General for Scotland, said in January 2012 that holding a referendum concerning the constitution would be outside the legislative power of the Scottish Parliament[21][37] and that private individuals could challenge a Scottish Parliament referendum bill.[38]
The two governments signed the Edinburgh Agreement, which allowed for the temporary transfer of legal authority.
In accordance with the Edinburgh Agreement, the UK government drafted an Order in Council granting the Scottish Parliament the necessary powers to hold, on or before 31 December 2014, an independence referendum.  

公民投票的合法性

因為憲法是英國議會的一個保留事項, 因而有"蘇格蘭議會是否有權對有關蘇格蘭獨立議題的公民投票進行立法"的爭論.[15]
2010, 蘇格蘭政府堅持他們可以立法一個公民投票, 因為這將是 "一個延長蘇格蘭議會權力的諮詢性公民投票",[14]其結果將對聯盟不具有法律效力" [13]17
Wallace 法官, 蘇格蘭的總法律顧問, 20121月說, 舉辦關於憲法的公民投票將是在蘇格蘭議會的立法權之外的[21] [37], 而個人可以挑戰一個蘇格蘭議會的公民投票法.[38]
兩政府簽署了愛丁堡協議, 允許對法律權的暫時移交. 按照協議愛丁堡, 英國政府起草了一份樞密院令, 授予蘇格蘭議會在20141231日或之前舉行一個獨立公民投票的必要的權力.

The draft Order was approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament, and the Order, titled The Scotland Act 1998 (Modification of Schedule 5) Order 2013, was approved by The Queen, following the advice of Her Ministers, at a meeting of the Privy Council on 12 February 2013.[39]
Under the powers temporarily transferred from Westminster under the section 30 Order, the Scottish Parliament adopted the Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013,[40] summoning the referendum, defining the question to be asked, giving the date on which the referendum was to be held and establishing the rules governing the holding of the referendum.
The Bill for the Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament on 14 November 2013 and received Royal Assent on 17 December 2013.
Under section 36 of the Act, it came into force the day after Royal Assent.

這個草案命令經議會兩院的決議, 以及這個命令, 名為 "蘇格蘭法案1998(附表5修改)命令2013", 是經女王於2013212日的一個樞密院評議會裏, 跟循她的部長們的意見所認可.[39]
根據第30條命令, 在從 Westminster 暫時轉移的權力下, 蘇格蘭議會採行了 蘇格蘭獨立公民投票法案2013[40],召喚公民投票, 定義要問的題目, 給出公民投票要舉行的日期, 以及建立管理舉行公民投票的規則.
蘇格蘭議會在20131114日通過了這個法案的草案, 且在20131217獲得御準. 根據該法第36, 它在御準日後開始生效. 

Electoral oversight
The Electoral Commission was responsible for overseeing the referendum, "with the exception of the conduct of the poll and announcement of the result, and the giving of grants.
In its role of regulating the campaign and campaign spending, the Electoral Commission will report to the Scottish Parliament. ...
The poll and count will be managed in the same way as [... local] elections, by local returning officers ... and directed by a Chief Counting Officer."[41]

選舉監督
選舉委員會負責監督公民投票, "除了投票的辦理, 結果的公佈, 以及贈款的捐贈, 在其調節競選活動及競選活動支出的角色裏, 選舉委員會將報告給蘇格蘭議會.
投票及計票將以與[...本地]選舉同樣的方式, 由當地的選舉主任來管理...並由一名首席計數官來指導."[41]
 

Referendum wording
The Edinburgh Agreement stated that the wording of the question would be decided by the Scottish Parliament and reviewed for intelligibility by the Electoral Commission.[41]
The Scottish government stated that its preferred question was”Do you agree that Scotland should be an independent country?" [42]
The Electoral Commission tested the proposed question along with three other possible versions.[43]
Their research found that the”Do you agree" preface made it a leading question, which would be more likely to garner a positive response.[42]
The question was amended to”Should Scotland be an independent country?", which the Electoral Commission found was the most neutral and concise of the versions tested.[42][43]

公民投票的用辭
愛丁堡(Edinburgh)協議指出, 題目的措辭將由蘇格蘭議會決定, 並且由選舉委員會審查其可理解性.[41]
蘇格蘭政府表示, 其首選的題目是:"你是否同意蘇格蘭應該成為一個獨立的國家?"[42]
連同其他三個可能的版本, 選舉委員會測試了所提議的題目.[43]
他們的研究發現, "你是否同意"前置辭使它成為引導性的問題, 這可能是更會積存了正向的回應.[42 ]
這個題目被修正為 "蘇格蘭應該成為一個獨立的國家嗎?", 選舉委員會發現這在測試的版本中是最中性的, 簡潔的.[42] [43]
 

Campaign structures
Cost and funding
In the 2010 Draft Bill, the Scottish government proposed that there would be a designated organisation campaigning for a “Yes” vote and a designated organisation campaigning for a “No” vote, both of which would be permitted to spend up to £750,000 on their campaign and to send one free mailshot to every household or voter in the referendum franchise.
There was to be no public funding for campaigns. Political parties were each to be allowed to spend £100,000.[13]
This proposed limit on party spending was revised to £250,000 in 2012.[44]In 2013, new proposals by the Electoral Commission for the 16-week regulated period preceding the poll were accepted.
They allowed the two designated campaign organisations to spend up to £1.5 million each and for the parties in Scotland to spend the following amounts: £1,344,000 (SNP); £834,000 (Labour); £396,000 (Conservatives); £201,000 (Liberal Democrats); £150,000 (Greens).[42]
An unlimited number of other organisations could register with the Electoral Commission, but their spending was limited to £150,000.[45] 

競選活動結構
成本和資金
2010年草案條例裏, 蘇格蘭政府提出會有一個指定為""的投票"的競選活動組織, 以及一個指定為""的投票"的競選活動組織,兩者都將被允許在其競選活動上花費高達750,000英鎊, 以及發送一次免費的廣告資料到每戶或具有公民投票投票權的選民.
沒有公共的競選活動資金. 每個政黨分別被允許花費100,000英鎊.[13]
這一政黨的花費限額提案上限. 2012年被修訂至250,000英鎊.[44]

According to the Scottish government”s consultation paper published on 25 February 2010, the cost of the referendum was”likely to be around £9.5 million", mostly spent on running the poll and the count.
Costs would also include the posting of one neutral information leaflet about the referendum to every Scottish household, and one free mailshot to every household or voter in the poll for the designated campaign organisations.[13]
As of April 2013, the projected cost of the referendum was £13.3 million.[46]

2013, 選舉委員會對於投票前的16週管制期間的新建議被接受了.
他們允許兩個指定的競選群組織個別花費高達1.5每萬英鎊, 以及蘇格蘭各政黨花費如下列的數量: 1,344,000英鎊(SNP); 834,000英鎊(勞動); 396,000英鎊(保守黨); 201,000英鎊(自由民主黨); 150,000英鎊(綠黨).[42]
不限數量的其他組織可以向選舉委員會登記,
​​他們的花費被限制到15萬英鎊.[45] 根據蘇格蘭政府於2010225日公佈的諮詢文件, 公民投票的成本 "可能是在9,500,000英鎊附近", 大多是花在投票和計票的運作. 費用也將包括郵寄一份關於公民投票的中性的信息傳單給每一個蘇格蘭家庭,以及在為指定的競選活動組織所做的民意調查的一次免費的廣告資料到每個家庭或選民.[13]截至20134月的公民投票的預計成本為13.3億英鎊.[46] 

Campaigning organisations
The campaign in favour of Scottish independence, Yes Scotland, was launched on 25 May 2012.[47]
Its chief executive was Blair Jenkins,[47] formerly the Director of Broadcasting at STV and Head of News and Current Affairs at both STV and BBC Scotland. The campaign was supported by the SNP,[47] the Scottish Green Party (which also created”its own pro-independence campaign to run alongside Yes Scotland"[48]) and the Scottish Socialist Party.
At its launch, Salmond stated that he hoped one million people in Scotland would sign a declaration of support for independence.[49]
On 22 August 2014, Yes Scotland announced that the one million target had been surpassed.[50]
The campaign in favour of Scotland remaining in the UK, Better Together, was launched on 25 June 2012.[51]
It was led by Alistair Darling, former Chancellor of the Exchequer, and had support from the Conservative Party, Labour Party and Liberal Democrats.[51][52] 

競選組織
贊成蘇格蘭獨立的競選活動組織 "是的  蘇格蘭"5252012年推出[47].
它的首席執行長是 Blair Jenkins, [47], 之前是在STV的廣播處長, 以及是STVBBC蘇格蘭兩者的新聞與時事主管.
這個競選活動組織是由SNP[47], 蘇格蘭綠黨(它也創造了它自己的獨立運動的競選活動組織, "是的  蘇格蘭" 同時進行"[48])
以及蘇格蘭社會黨所支持,在其推出後, Salmond 表示他希望在蘇格蘭偶一百萬人能簽署一個支援獨立的聲明.[49]
2014822, "是的  蘇格蘭"宣布, 百萬的目標已被超越.[50]


贊成蘇格蘭留在英國的競選活動組織 "在一起  比較好" 2012625日推出.[51]它是由Alistair Darling領導的, 前財政大臣, 並且來自保守黨, 工黨和自由民主黨的支持.[51][52]
 

Advertising

Political advertising on television and radio in the UK was prohibited by the Communications Act 2003, with the exception of permitted party political broadcasts.[53]
Three major cinema chains stopped showing adverts by referendum campaign groups after receiving negative feedback from their customers.[54] 

廣告
依據2003電信法, 在英國的電視和電台做政治廣告是被禁止的, 除了被允許的政黨的政治廣播.[53]
三大院線收到來自他們的客戶的負面回饋後, 停止播出來自公民投票運動團體的廣告.[54]
 

Donations
In December 2013 the Better Together campaign declared that it had received donations of £2.8 million.[55]
Six-figure contributions were made by businessmen Ian Taylor and Donald Houston, and by author C. J. Sansom; almost 27,000 donations of under £7,500 had been received by the same date.[56]
A later donation came from writer J. K. Rowling, who announced in June 2014 that she had given £1 million.[55][56]
In the following month, whisky distiller William Grant & Sons announced a donation of approximately £100,000.[57]
On 12 August 2014 Better Together announced that it had raised enough money to cover the maximum spending permitted and was no longer accepting donations.[58]
This was attributed in part to a large number of small donations being received after the first televised debate between Salmond and Darling.[58]
As of May 2014, the Yes Scotland campaign had declared £4.5 million in cash donations.[55][56]
EuroMillions lottery-winners Chris and Colin Weir gave £3.5 million.[55]
A six-figure donation was given by investment fund manager Angus Tulloch; approximately 18,000 donations of less than £7,500 had been made by the same date.[56] 

捐贈
201312月的"在一起  比較好"競選活動宣布, 它已收到2,800,000英鎊的捐款.[55]
六位數字的捐獻是由商人Ian Taylor Donald Houston, 及作家 C. J. Sansom所做的.在同一日期收到了接近27,000筆小於7,500英鎊以下的捐款.[56]
之後來來自作家J. K. Rowling的捐款, 他在20146月宣布, 給了一百萬英鎊.[55][56] 在接下來的一個月, 威士忌蒸餾者 William Grant & Sons 公佈了大約100,000英鎊的捐款.[57]2014812"在一起  比較好"宣布, 它已籌集到足夠的資金來支付所允許的最大開支, 不再接受捐款.[58]
這是部分歸因於在SalmondDarling之間的第一次電視辯論後, 收到大量的小額捐款.[58]
截至20145, "是的  蘇格蘭" 競選活動已經宣布4,500,000英鎊的現金捐款.[55][56]

EuroMillions
彩卷得主Chris Colin Weir給了3,500,000英鎊.[55]
一個六位數字的捐款是由投資基金經理Angus Tulloch提供的; 約有18,000小於7,500英鎊的捐贈, 已經在相同的日期完成.[56]

Voting process
Voting for the referendum commenced on 27 August 2014, with the receipt of ballots by postal voters.
As of 15 August, 680,235 eligible voters had registered for postal voting, a 20% increase compared with March 2014.[59]
During the postal vote phase, Police Scotland arrested a man from Glasgow on suspicion of selling his vote on eBay.[60]
The registration deadline for referendum voters was 2 September 2014.[59] Several councils reported the processing of”unprecedented" numbers of new registrations, while others received”tens of thousands" of applications in the final week.[61] 

投票過程
公民投票的投票從2014827日開始, 接收以郵寄投票選民的選票.
截至815, 680,235合資格選民已登記了郵寄投票, 2014年三月份相比增加20.[59]
在郵寄投票階段, 蘇格蘭警方從Glasgow拘捕一名嫌疑在eBay網站上出售自己選票的男子.[60] 登記為公民投票選民的截止日期為201492.[59]一些議會報告處理了"史無前例"的數量的新登記, 而最後一周, 其他的則收到"數以萬計"的申請.[61]
 

Outcome of the vote
The UK government stated that, if a simple majority of the votes cast were in favour of independence, then”Scotland would become an independent country after a process of negotiations".[62][63]
If the majority was against independence, Scotland would continue within the United Kingdom.[62][63]
Further powers would be devolved to the Scottish Parliament as a result of the Scotland Act 2012.[62][63]
The Electoral Commission prepared an information leaflet which confirmed that the UK and Scottish governments had reached agreement on these points.[63]

投票結果
英國政府指出, 如果簡單多數的選票贊成獨立, 那麼"在一個談判程序後, 蘇格蘭將成為一個獨立的國家".[62][63]
如果多數反對獨立, 蘇格蘭將繼續留在英國裏.[62][63]
進一步的權力將下放給蘇格蘭議會做為"蘇格蘭法案2012"的結果.[62][63]
選舉委員會準備的資料傳單以確認英國和蘇格蘭政府已就這些議題達成協議.[63]
 

Issues
各種議題

Agriculture
In 2013, as part of a European Union (EU) member state, Scottish farmers received £583 million in subsidy payments from the EU under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).[64]
Annual CAP payments are made to the UK, which then determines how much to allocate to each of the devolved administrations, including Scotland.[65]
In the last CAP agreement, farmers in the UK qualified for additional convergence payments because Scottish farmers receive a lower average single farm payment per hectare, mainly due to the mountainous terrain in Scotland.[65][66]
Supporters of independence therefore believed that an independent Scotland would receive greater agricultural subsidies than when part of the UK.[65]
Opponents of independence believed that Scottish farmers benefited because the UK was one of the larger EU member states and therefore had a greater say in CAP negotiations.[65]
They also questioned whether an independent Scotland would immediately receive full subsidy payments from the EU, as recent new member states had had their subsidies phased in.[65]

農業
2013, 作為歐洲聯盟(EU)成員國的一部分, 在共同農業政策(CAP), 蘇格蘭農民從歐盟獲得5.83億英鎊補貼款項.[64]
年度CAP款項撥給英國, 然後由其決定要分配多少給每一個權力下放政府, 包括蘇格蘭.[65]
在最近的CAP協議裏, 英國的農戶符合額外收斂支付的資格, 因為蘇格蘭農民獲得每公頃較低的平均單農場支付,主要是由於在蘇格蘭的多山地形.[65][66]
支持獨立者的因此相信一個獨立的蘇格蘭, 將比起只是英國的一部分時獲得更大的農業補貼.[65]
反對獨立者的相信蘇格蘭農民受益因為英國是歐盟較大的成員國之一, 因而在CAP談判中有更大的發言權. [65]
他們還質疑一個獨立的蘇格蘭是否能立即收到來自歐盟的全額補貼款項,就如同近期新成員國必需分階段取得他們的補貼.[65]
 

Border controls and immigration
The UK has some opt-outs from EU policies. One is the opt-out from the Schengen Area,meaning there are full passport checks for travellers from other EU countries except Republic of Ireland, which is part of the Common Travel Area (CTA) with the UK.
The Scottish government proposed that an independent Scotland should remain outside the Schengen Area and join the CTA,[67][68] ensuring that no passport controls would be needed at the Anglo-Scottish border.
Nicola Sturgeon commented that an independent Scotland would negotiate with the EU to have the same visa arrangements as the UK has.[69]
In May 2014, Labour MEP David Martin commented that the EU was”not going to force Scotland to join Schengen".[70]
Alistair Carmichael, the Secretary of State for Scotland, said in January 2014 that it would make sense for Scotland to be in the CTA, but it would have to operate similar immigration policies to the rest of the UK.[68]
This position was supported by Home Secretary Theresa May, who said in March 2014 that passport checks should be introduced if Scotland adopted a looser immigration policy.[68]
The Conservative MP Richard Bacon said there would be”no reason" for border controls to be implemented.[71] 

邊境控制和移民
英國有一些對於歐盟的政策選擇性例外. 其中一個是申根區(Schengen Area)的選擇性例外, 這意味著, 從其他歐盟國家來的旅客需有充分的護照檢查, 除了愛爾蘭以外, 它是是英國的共同旅遊區(CTA)的一部分.
蘇格蘭政府提議, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭應該保持於申根區之外, 並且加入共同旅遊區(CTA), [67][68]確保在英--蘇邊界沒有護照管制的需要.

Nicola Sturgeon
評論說, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭將與歐盟進行磋商談判, 以具有跟英國具有的相同的簽證安排.[69]
2014
5, 工黨MEP(歐洲議會成員)David Martin 評論說, "歐盟不會強迫蘇格蘭加入申根".[70]
Alistair Carmichael,
蘇格蘭國務卿, 20141月表示, 蘇格蘭是在CTA裏是有意義的, 但它必須運行與英國的其他地區類似的移民政策.[68]
這一立場得到內政大臣Theresa May的支持, 他在20143月說, 如果採取較寬鬆的移民政策, 護照檢查應引入蘇格蘭[68]
保守黨國會議員 Richard Bacon, "沒有理由" 設立邊境控制.[71]

Childcare
In the white paper Scotland”s Future, the Scottish government pledged to expand childcare provision in an independent Scotland.[72][73]
The paper stated that this policy would cost £700 million, but that this would be financed by increased tax revenue from an additional 100,000 women returning to work.[72]
Scottish Labour leader Johann Lamont said that the policy should be implemented immediately if the Scottish government believed it would have a beneficial effect,[72] but Salmond responded that under devolution the costs of the policy would have to be financed by cuts elsewhere in public expenditure.[72]
In March 2014, the National Day Nurseries Association said that the plan could not be implemented unless greater funding was provided by local authorities to private nurseries.[74]
A report by the Scottish Parliament Information Centre questioned the economic benefit of the policy, pointing out that there were only 64,000 mothers of children aged between 1 and 5 who were economically inactive.[75]
A spokesman for Salmond said that the estimated total 104,000 women would enter the workforce over a longer period, as future generations of mothers would also be able to work, stating:"The key point about the policy is that it doesn”t happen on one day or one year and then cease."[75]

幼兒保育
"蘇格蘭的未來"白皮書裏, 蘇格蘭政府承諾在獨立的蘇格蘭擴大育兒供應(福利條款).[72][73]該文指出, 這一政策將耗資7億英鎊, 但是, 這將從額外的10萬名婦女重返工作崗位所增加的稅收來資助.[72]
蘇格蘭工黨領袖Johann Lamont, 如果蘇格蘭政府認為這會產生有益的作用, 這個政策應立即實施,[72] Salmond回應稱, 在權力下放下此政策的成本將不得不經由削減其他公共開支以提供資金.[72]

2014
3, 國家日托協會表示, 除非由地方當局所提供的更大的資金給私人托育, 這個計劃是無法被實施的.[74]
蘇格蘭議會信息中心的報告質疑了這個政策的經濟效益, 指出僅有64,000個有15歲兒童的母親是非從事經濟活動的.[75]

Salmond
的發言人表示, 在一個較長時期, 預估總計104,000女性將進入勞動力,因為將來世代的母親也能正常工作, 他表示:"關於這個政策的關鍵點是, 它不會發生在一天或一年, 然後停止"[75] 

Citizenship
The Scottish government proposed that all Scottish-born British citizens would automatically become Scottish citizens on the date of independence, regardless of whether or not they were then living in Scotland.
British citizens”habitually resident" in Scotland would also be considered Scottish citizens, even if they already held the citizenship of another country. Every person who would automatically be considered a Scottish citizen would be able to opt out of Scottish citizenship provided they already held the citizenship of another country.[76]
The Scottish government also proposed that anyone with a Scottish parent or grandparent would be able to apply for registration as a Scottish citizen, and any foreign national living in Scotland legally, or who had lived in Scotland for at least 10 years at any time and had an ongoing connection to Scotland,should be able to apply for naturalisation as a Scottish citizen.[76] The UK Home Secretary, Theresa May, said future policies of an independent Scottish government would affect whether Scottish citizens would be allowed to retain British citizenship.[77]
An analysis paper published by the UK government in January 2014 stated that it was likely that Scots would be able to hold dual citizenship;[78] however, the duality was considered with respect to all other countries, not specifically to the rest of the UK.
The possibility of holding dual UK-Scotland citizenships could be subject to the”proof of affinity".[79] 

公民
蘇格蘭政府提出, 所有在蘇格蘭出生的英國公民, 在獨立之日, 將自動成為蘇格蘭公民, 無論他們後來是否住在蘇格蘭.

"
經常居住"在蘇格蘭的英國公民也被認為"是的  蘇格蘭"的公民, 即使他們已持有另一個國家的國籍.
每一個自動被視為蘇格蘭公民的人將能夠選擇退出蘇格蘭公民, 如果他們已經持有另一個國家的國籍.[76]蘇格蘭政府還提出, 任何人只要有一個蘇格蘭父母或祖父母就可以申請註冊為蘇格蘭的公民, 任何合法居住在蘇格蘭的外國公民, 或者任何時候, 已曾住在蘇格蘭至少10, 且有一個與蘇格蘭持續的連繫,應該可以申請移入成為蘇格蘭公民.[76]
英國內政大臣Theresa May表示, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭政府的未來政策  將影響到蘇格蘭公民是否將被允許保留英國國籍.[77]
由英國政府於20141月發表的分析文章指出, 蘇格蘭人將能夠擁有雙重公民身份是比較可能的;[78]但是, 雙重公民身份是對應於所有其他國家, 而不是僅適用到英國其他地區.
持雙重英國--蘇格蘭籍的可能性, 可能會需受到 "姻親關係證明".[79]
 

Defence 
Budget
The SNP said that there was a defence underspend of”at least £7.4 billion" between 2002 and 2012 in Scotland and that independence would allow the Scottish government to correct this imbalance.[80]
In its white paper, the Scottish government planned that an independent Scotland would have a total of 15,000 regular and 5,000 reserve personnel across land, air and maritime forces by 2026.[81]
In July 2013, the SNP proposed that there would be a £2.5 billion annual military budget in an independent Scotland.[82]
The House of Commons Defence Select Committee said that the £2.5bn budget was too low.[83]
Andrew Murrison, UK Minister for International Security Strategy agreed and said it was”risible" for the SNP to suggest it could create an independent force by”salami-slicing" from current British armed forces units.[84]
The House of Commons defence committee also stated that Scottish independence would have a negative effect on its industry,[85] while the UK government said it would not be willing to build warships in a foreign country.[86]
Geoff Searle, the director of BAE Systems” Type 26 Global Combat Ship programme, said in June 2014 that the company had no alternative plan for shipbuilding,[87]but this position was later revised by the Chairman of BAE, who stated that they could resume shipbuilding in the English city of Portsmouth if an independent Scotland was established.[88]
The chief executive of Thales, one of Britain”s largest defence suppliers, said that if Scotland became independent that this might raise questions about continued investment from his firm.[89]
The Royal United Services Institute said in 2012 that an independent Scotland could set up a Scottish Defence Force, comparable in size and strength to those of other small European states like Denmark, Norway and Ireland, at an annual cost of £1.8 billion.[90] 

國防
預算

SNP
, 20022012年間在蘇格蘭有 "至少74億英鎊" 的國防投入的不足,而獨立將允許蘇格蘭政府來更正這種失衡.[80]
在其白皮書中, 蘇格蘭政府計劃中的一個獨立的蘇格蘭, 接近2026年時, 將有共計15,000的常備和5000的儲備人員, 涵蓋陸地, 空中和海上部隊.[81]
20137, SNP提出, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭會有25億英鎊的年度軍費預算.[82]
下議院的國防委員會表示, 25億英鎊的預算太低.[83]

Andrew Murrison,
英國的國際安全戰略大臣認同, 並且說SNP表明它可以從目前的英軍部隊各單位以"臘腸切片"來產生一個獨立的軍隊是"可笑".[84] 下議院國防委員會還表示, 蘇格蘭獨立將會對工業界產生負面影響,[85]而英國政府表示, 將不會願意在外國建造軍艦.[86]
Geoff Searle, BAE
系統的26型全球戰鬥艦計劃主任, 20146月表示, 此公司沒有船舶建造的替代計劃,[87] 但這一立場後來被BAE主席修改, 他表示,如果一個獨立的蘇格蘭已建立, 他們可能在英國城市Portsmouth恢復造船.[88]
Thales
公司, 英國最大的國防供應商之一, 執行長表示, 如果蘇格蘭獨立了,可能會引起關於他的公司繼續投資的問題.[89]
英國皇家聯合服務研究所在2012年說, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭可以在18億英鎊的年度成本, 建立一個規模和強度可以與其他歐洲小國如丹麥, 挪威和愛爾蘭比較的蘇格蘭國防軍力.[90]

The authors acknowledged that an independent Scotland would "need to come to some arrangement with the rest of the UK" on intelligence-gathering, cyber-warfare and cyber-defence, that the future cost of purchasing and maintaining equipment of its forces might be higher due to smaller orders,and that recruitment and training "may prove problematic" in the early years.[90]
Dorcha Lee, a former colonel in the Irish Army, said that Scotland could eschew forming an army based on inherited resources from the British Army and instead follow an Irish model of a limited self-defence force.[91]

作者們承認一個獨立的蘇格蘭將需要來與英國其他地區的一些安排",由於較小的訂單, 其部隊購買和維護裝備的未來成本可能會比較高,而且在前面幾年的招聘和培訓 "可能被證明是容易有問題的".[90]
Dorcha Lee,
一位愛爾蘭軍隊的前上校說, 蘇格蘭可以避開形成一支基於繼承來自英國軍隊資源的軍隊,而是遵循愛爾蘭模式的有限自衛隊.[91]

Nuclear weapons
The Trident nuclear missile system is based at Coulport weapons depot and naval base of Faslane in the Firth of Clyde area.
While the SNP objects to having nuclear weapons on Scottish territory, British military leaders have said that there is no alternative site for the missiles;[92][93]
in April 2014, several British military leaders co-signed a letter stating that forcing Trident to leave Scottish waters would place the UK nuclear deterrent in jeopardy.[94]
Nowhere to Go, a report by Scottish CND, concluded that the removal of Trident from Scotland would force unilateral nuclear disarmament by the United Kingdom, as the weapons have no viable alternative base.[95]
A report by the Royal United Services Institute said that relocating Trident would be "very difficult, but not impossible" and estimated that it would take about 10 years and create an additional cost of around £3 billion.[96]
A seminar hosted by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace stated that the Royal Navy would have to consider a range of alternatives, including disarmament.[97]
A report in 2013 from the Scotland Institute think tank suggested a future Scottish government could be convinced to lease the Faslane nuclear base to the rest of the UK to maintain good diplomatic relations and expedite NATO entry negotiations.[98] 

核武器
三叉戟核導彈系統是基於Coulport武器倉庫和在克萊德灣的區域裏的Faslane海軍基地.
雖然SNP反對在蘇格蘭地區擁有核武器, 英國軍方領導人表示, 沒有可替代的導彈地點;[92][93]
20144, 幾個英國軍事領導人共同簽署的函件, 指出強迫三叉戟離開蘇格蘭海域將置英國的核威懾力量於危險之中.[94]

"
無處可去", 一份由蘇格蘭CND(Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament)所作的報告, 結論是從蘇格蘭的移除三叉戟, 將迫使英國單方的面核裁軍, 因為武器有沒有可行的替代的基地.[95]
英國皇家聯合服務研究所的一份報告稱, 搬遷三叉戟將是"非常困難, 但不是不可能的", 並預計這將需要大約10, 產生約300億英鎊的額外費用.[96]
卡內基國際和平基金會舉辦的研討會表示, 皇家海軍將不得不考慮一系列備選方案, 其中包括解除武裝.[97]
從蘇格蘭研究所智庫在2013年的一份報告建議, 未來的蘇格蘭政府可以被說服, 租賃Faslan的核基地給英國其他地區以保持良好的外交關係, 以及加快進入北約的談判.[98]

NATO membership
In 2012 the SNP dropped a long-standing policy of opposition in principle to NATO membership.[99]
MSPs John Finnie and Jean Urquhart resigned from the SNP over the policy change.[100]
The Scottish Green Party and Scottish Socialist Party remained opposed to continued membership of NATO.[101]
The SNP position that Trident nuclear weapons should be removed from Scotland but that it should hold NATO membership was criticised by Willie Rennie, leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats,[102] and Patrick Harvie, co-convenor of the Scottish Green Party.[103]
Alex Salmond said it would be "perfectly feasible" to join NATO while maintaining an anti-nuclear stance and that Scotland would pursue NATO membership only "subject to an agreement that Scotland will not host nuclear weapons and NATO continues to respect the right of members to only take part in UN sanctioned operations".[104]
In 2013, Professor Malcolm Chalmers of the Royal United Services Institute stated that "pragmatists" in the SNP accepted that NATO membership would be likely to involve a long-term basing deal enabling the UK to keep Trident on the Clyde.[105]
The former Secretary General of NATO and Scottish Labour peer Lord Robertson said in 2013 that "either the SNP accept the central nuclear role of NATO ... or they reject the nuclear role of NATO and ensure that a separate Scottish state stays out of the world”s most successful defence alliance."[106]
General Richard Shirreff criticised SNP proposals for defence and questioned whether other NATO members would accept an independent Scotland that rejected the principle of nuclear deterrence.[107]
This was disputed by Mariot Leslie, a former UK permanent representative to NATO, who stated that NATO would not want to disrupt its arrangements by excluding Scotland.[108] 

北約成員
2012年的SNP放棄了其原則上反對加入北約成員的長期政策.[99]
蘇格蘭議會議員John Finnie Jean UrquhartSNP在這個政策的變動而辭職.[100] 蘇格蘭綠黨和蘇格蘭社會黨仍然反對繼續北約會籍.[101]

SNP
的三叉戟核武器應該從蘇格蘭被移除, 但它應該持有北約成員會籍受到 Willie Rennie, 蘇格蘭自由民主黨領袖,[102] Patrick Harvie, 蘇格蘭綠黨共同召集人.[103]的批評.
Alex Salmond
表示, 加入北約, 同時保持一個反核立場, 這將是完全可行的",而蘇格蘭將尋求加入北約, 只有"受限於的一個協議, 即蘇格蘭將不會持有核武器, 而北約將繼續尊重成員的權利,只參加聯合國的制裁行動的一部分.[104] 

2013, 英國皇家聯合服務研究所的Malcolm Chalmers教授表示, SNP"實用主義者"接受, 北約成員國(的取得),很可能會涉及到一個長期築底的交易, 使英國能夠維持三叉戟在Clyde.[105]
北約前秘書長和蘇格蘭工黨同輩Lord Robertson2013年說,
"SNP要不就必須接受北約的核武中心的角色...或者他們拒絕北約的核武角色, 並保證一個分離的蘇格蘭國家自外於世界最成功的防禦聯盟".[106]
Richard Shirreff
將軍批評SNP的國防提案, 並質疑北約其他成員是否會接受一個拒絕核威懾的原則的獨立蘇格蘭.[107]這被 Mariot Leslie 所爭議. 這位前英國的北約永久代表表示, 北約不希望由於排除蘇格蘭而破壞它的安排.[108]

情報
A UK government paper on security stated that Police Scotland would lose access to the intelligence apparatus of the UK, including MI5, SIS and GCHQ.[109]
The paper also said that an independent Scottish state would need to build its own security infrastructure.[109]
Theresa May commented that an independent Scotland would have access to less security capability, but would not necessarily face a reduced threat.[109]
In 2013, Allan Burnett, former head of intelligence with Strathclyde Police and Scotland”s counter-terrorism co-ordinator until 2010,said that "an independent Scotland would face less of a threat, intelligence institutions will be readily created, and allies will remain allies".
Peter Jackson, professor of security at the University of Glasgow, agreed that Special Branch could form a "suitable nucleus" of a Scottish equivalent of MI5, and that Scotland could forego creating an equivalent of MI6, instead "relying on pooled intelligence or diplomatic open sources" like Canada or the Nordic countries.[110]
Baroness Ramsay, a Labour peer and former case officer with MI6, said that the Scottish government”s standpoint on intelligence was”extremely naïve" and that it was "not going to be as simple as they think".[110]
Nicola Sturgeon stated that Scotland would create its own security service like MI5 to work alongside police and tackle terrorism, cyber attacks and serious organised crime.[111]
She also stated creating an external intelligence agency would remain an option.[111]

情報
英國政府對於安全性的文件指出,警方蘇格蘭將失去英國的情報機構及設備的存取, 包括MI5(英國軍情五處), SISGCHQ.[109]
該文還稱, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭國家需要建立自己的安全基礎設施.[109]

Theresa May
評論說,一個獨立的蘇格蘭將只能獲得更少的安全能力,但面臨威脅不必然會縮減.[109]
2013, Allan Burnett, Strathclyde 警方情報組織的前負責人與直到2010年的蘇格蘭的反恐統籌協調,說: "一個獨立的蘇格蘭將面臨更小的威脅, 情報機構將很容易創建和盟友將維持盟友".

Peter Jackson, Glasgow
大學安全教授認同,  政治安全部門(Special Branch)可以形成一個相當於MI5的蘇格蘭 "合適的核",而且蘇格蘭可以放棄創建MI6的相當機構, 而像加拿大或北歐國家一樣, "依賴於匯集的情報或外交的公開來源".[110]
男爵夫人Ramsay, 工黨同儕, MI6案件負責人說,蘇格蘭政府的情報角度是 "極度的天真"而且它將不是像他們認為的 "那麼簡單".[110]

Nicola Sturgeon
表示,蘇格蘭將創建一個類似MI5的自己的安全服務, 以警察和一起工作, 對付恐怖主義, 網絡攻擊和嚴重的有組織犯罪.[111]她還表示創建一個外部的情報機構將仍然是一個選項.[111] 

Democracy
The Scottish government and pro-independence campaigners said that a democratic deficit existed in Scotland[112][113][114] because the UK was a unitary state that did not have a codified constitution.[115]
The SNP also described the unelected House of Lords as an "affront to democracy".[116]
The "democratic deficit" label has sometimes been used to refer to the period between the 1979 and 1997 UK general elections, during which the Labour Party held a majority of Scottish seats but the Conservative Party governed the whole of the UK.[117]
Alex Salmond said in September 2013 that instances such as this amounted to a lack of democracy, and that "the people who live and work in Scotland are the people most likely to make the right choices for Scotland".[118][119] In January 2012, Patrick Harvie said:”Greens have a vision of a more radical democracy in Scotland, with far greater levels of discussion and decision making at community level."[120]
Menzies Campbell wrote in April 2014 that any democratic deficit had been addressed by creating the devolved Scottish Parliament, and that "Scotland and the Scottish have enjoyed influence beyond our size or reasonable expectation" within the British government and the wider political system.[121]
Conservative MP Daniel Kawczynski said in 2009 that the asymmetric devolution in place in the UK has created a democratic deficit for England.[122]
This is more commonly known as the West Lothian question, which cites the anomaly where English MPs cannot vote on affairs devolved to Scotland, but Scottish MPs can vote on the equivalent subjects in England.
Kawczynski also pointed out that the average number of voters in a parliamentary constituency is larger in England than in Scotland.[122]

民主
蘇格蘭政府和獨立運動人士說, 蘇格蘭存在一個民主赤字[112][113][114], 因為英國是沒有一個成文憲法的單一制國家.[115]

SNP
還形容非民選的上議院是一種 "侮辱民主".[116]
"
民主赤字" 的標籤有時被用來指1979年和1997年期間的英國大選,在此期間, 工黨舉握有蘇格蘭的多數席位, 但保守黨統治了整個英國.[117]
Alex Salmond
20139月表示, 像這樣的情況無異於缺乏民主, 而且"活和工作在蘇格蘭的人是最容易為蘇格蘭做出正確的人選擇"[118][119]
2012
1, Patrick Harvie: "綠黨在蘇格蘭有一個更跟本民主的願景,在社區層面具有更大層次的討論和決策".[120]
Menzies Campbell
20144月寫道, 任何的民主赤字已經由創建權利下放的蘇格蘭議會解決了,而且英國政府和更廣泛的政治體系之內, "蘇格蘭和蘇格蘭人民已享有超出我們的規模或合理期待的影響力".[121]
保守黨議員Daniel Kawczynski2009年表示, 聯合王國的非對稱下放, 反而在英國產生了民主赤字.[122]
這是更被稱為的 West Lothian 的問題, 他列舉出英國國會議員不能對下放蘇格蘭的事務投票,但是蘇格蘭國會議員可以在英格蘭相應的主題上投票.

Kawczynski
也指出, 英國在議會選區的選民的平均數量比蘇格蘭大.[122]

During the campaign each of the three main UK parties conducted reviews into devolution, with each recommending that more powers should be devolved to the Scottish Parliament.[123][124]
On the morning prior to a televised debate between Alex Salmond and Alistair Darling,[125] a joint statement was published by Better Together. Co-signed by the 3 main UK party leaders, it stated a commitment to grant Scotland increased power over domestic taxes and parts of the social security system.[126]
Boris Johnson, the Conservative mayor of London, stated his opposition to giving the Scottish Parliament greater fiscal powers.[127]
During the second televised debate, Salmond challenged Darling to specify which additional powers that could help create greater employment in Scotland would be granted if there was a”no" vote.[128]
During a visit to Scotland later that week, David Cameron promised more powers”soon".[128]
On 8 September, former Prime Minister Gordon Brown suggested a timetable for the additional powers to be implemented in the event of a”no" vote.[129]
He proposed that work on a new Scotland Act would begin immediately after the referendum, resulting in the publication of a white paper by the end of November 2014.[129]
Two days before the referendum, the three main UK party leaders (Cameron, Miliband and Clegg) publicly pledged to introduce "extensive new powers" by the timetable suggested and that the Barnett formula of public funding would be continued.[130]

競選活動期間, 三個英國主要政黨, 分別進行權力下放的評論,分別推薦更多的權力應該下放給蘇格蘭議會.[123][124]
在一個 Alex Salmond Alistair Darling 之間的電視辯論之前的上午, [125]一個聯合聲明由"在一起  比較好" 所發表, 由英國的3個主要政黨領袖共同簽署,它陳述了承諾授予蘇格蘭增加對國內稅收和部分社會保障體系的權力.[126]

Boris Johnson,
倫敦的保守黨市長, 闡述了他反對給蘇格蘭議會更大的財政權力.[127]
在第二電視辯論中, Salmond 挑戰了Darling指出哪些有助於在蘇格蘭創造更多的就業機會額外的權力將被授與, 如果有一個""的投票結果.[128]
在那個星期之後的一個訪問蘇格蘭期間, David Cameron 承諾"很快地"更多的權力.[128] 98, 前首相 Gordon Brown 建議了在一個 ""的投票結果中, 一個實現額外權力的時間表.[129]
他提出一個新的蘇格蘭法案的工作將在投票後立即開始, 達成在201411月月底公佈白皮書.[129]
在公民投票前兩天, 三個主要的英國政黨領袖(Cameron, Miliband and Clegg) 公開表示要引進由時間表所建議的 "廣泛的新權力", 且公共資金的Barnett公式將繼續進行.[130]

Economy
A principal issue in the referendum was the economy.[131]
The UK Treasury issued a report on 20 May 2013 which said that Scotland”s banking systems would be too big to ensure depositor compensation in the event of a bank failure.[132]
The report indicated that Scottish banks would have assets worth 1,254% of GDP, which is more than Cyprus and Iceland before the last global financial crisis.[132]
It suggested Scottish taxpayers would each have £65,000 of potential liabilities during a hypothetical bailout in Scotland, versus £30,000 as part of the UK.[132]
Economists including Andrew Hughes Hallett, Professor of Economics at St Andrews University, rejected the idea that Scotland would have to underwrite these liabilities alone.
He observed that banks operating in more than one country can be given a joint bailout by multiple governments.[133]
In this manner, Fortis Bank and the Dexia Bank were bailed out collectively by France, Belgium, and the Netherlands.[133]
The Federal Reserve System lent more than US$1 trillion to British banks, including $446 billion to the Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), because they had operations in the United States.[133][134]

經濟
在公民投票中的一個主要議題是經濟.[131]
英國財政部於2013520日發佈了一份報告稱, 蘇格蘭銀行系統會太大, 以至於在在銀行倒閉的事件時, 無法保證存款人的補償.[132]
該報告指出, 蘇格蘭銀行能擁有值1,254GDP的資產,這超過最近的全球金融危機前的塞浦路斯和冰島.[132]
這表示蘇格蘭納稅人在蘇格蘭的一個假設的救助當中, 每個人都有65,000英鎊的潛在責任, 對照於作為英國的一部分的30,000英鎊.[132]
包括 Andrew Hughes Hallett, St Andrews大學的經濟學教授等的經濟學家,不接受蘇格蘭將必得單獨承擔這些責任的想法.
他觀察指出, 在以個以上的國家運營的銀行, 可以得到多個政府的的聯合救助.[133]在這種方式下, Fortis銀行和Dexia銀行被法國, 比利時和荷蘭集體救助.[133]
聯邦儲備系統藉超過1兆美元給英國銀行, 包括4460億蘇格蘭皇家銀行(RBS),因為他們在美國有業務.[133][134]
 

Robert Peston reported in March 2014 that RBS and Lloyds Banking Group might be forced to relocate their head offices from Edinburgh to London in case of Scottish independence, due to a European law brought in after the 1991 collapse of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International.[135] Financial groups The Royal Bank of Scotland, Lloyds, Clydesdale Bank, TSB and Tesco Bank later announced that they planned to move their registered headquarters from Scotland to England in the event of Scotland voting for independence;most indicated that they had no immediate intention to transfer any jobs.[136][137]
Weir Group, one of the largest private companies based in Scotland, commissioned a study by Oxford Economics into the potential economic effects of Scottish independence.[138]
It found that Weir would pay more corporation tax, despite the Scottish government”s proposal to cut the rate of corporation tax, due to it no longer being able to offset losses in Scotland against profits in the rest of the UK.[138]
It also stated that independence would result in additional costs and complexity in the operation of business pension schemes.[138]
The report found that 70% of all Scottish exports are sold to the rest of the UK,which it said would particularly affect the financial services sector.[138] Standard Life, one of the largest businesses in the Scottish financial sector, said in February 2014 that it had started registering companies in England in case it had to relocate some of its operations there.[139] 

Robert Peston 20143月報導, 在蘇格蘭獨立的情況下, 由於在1991年國際信貸與商業銀行崩盤後帶進來的歐洲法律,RBS(蘇格蘭皇家銀行)Lloyds銀行集團可能會被迫將總部從愛丁堡搬遷到倫敦.[135]
金融集團 RBS(蘇格蘭皇家銀行)Lloyds, Clydesdale銀行, TSBTesco銀行隨後宣布, 在蘇格蘭投票要求獨立的事件下, 他們計劃將他們的註冊總部從蘇格蘭移到英國,大多數表示, 他們沒有立即轉換任何工作職位的意向.[136][137]

Weir
集團, 總部設在蘇格蘭的最大的民營企業之一, 委託由牛津大學經濟學進行的一項蘇格蘭獨立對於蘇格蘭經濟的潛在影響的研究.[138]
研究發現, 因為它不再能夠用在蘇格蘭的損失來抵消在英國其他地區的利潤,儘管蘇格蘭政府的提議削減公司稅的稅率, Weir仍將支付更多的公司稅[138]
這也表示獨立將導致在企業年金計劃的運作, 額外的成本和複雜性.[138]
該報告發現, 蘇格蘭所有出口的70%銷往其他英國地區,它說會特別影響到金融服務行業.[138]
標準人壽, 在蘇格蘭金融業的最大企業之一, 20142月說,在它必須搬遷某些業務到那邊的情況下, 它必須開始在英國註冊公司.[139]

In February 2014, the Financial Times noted that Scotland”s per capita GDP is bigger than that of France when a geographic share of oil and gas is taken into account, and still bigger than that of Italy when it is not.[140]
As of April 2014, Scotland had a similar rate of unemployment to the UK average (6.6%)[141] and a lower fiscal deficit (including as a percentage of GDP)[142] than the rest of the UK.
Scotland performed better than the UK average in securing new Foreign Direct Investment in 2012–13 (measured by the number of projects), lthough not as well as Wales or Northern Ireland.[143]
GDP growth during 2013 was lower in Scotland than in the rest of the UK, although this was partly due to an industrial dispute at the Grangemouth Refinery.[144]
Deutsche Bank issued a report in the week prior to the referendum and the media reported on 13 September that David Folkerts-Landau, the bank”s chief economist, had concluded:"While it may sound simple and costless for a nation to exit a 300 year-old union, nothing could be further from the truth".
Folkerts-Landau claimed that the economic prospects after a "yes" vote were "incomprehensible", citing Winston Churchill”s 1925 Gold Standard decision and the actions of America”s Federal Reserve that triggered the Great Depression of the 1930s, as other mistakes of a similar magnitude.
The Swiss UBS financial services company supported the position of the Deutsche Bank.[145]
Supporters of independence have said that Scotland does not meet its full economic potential because it is subject to the same economic policy as the rest of the UK.[146][147]

20142, 金融時報指出, 當石油和天然氣地理份額是計算在內時,蘇格蘭的人均GDP是大於法國的, 而不是時, 仍然比意大利大.[140]
截至20144, 蘇格蘭有相似於英國平均(6.6)的失業率[141]以及和較比英國其他地區低的財政赤字(包括以佔國內生產總值的百分比)[142].
雖然蘇格蘭在2012-13年爭取新的外國直接投資(按項目數計算)不如 Wales和北愛爾蘭好.[143]
蘇格蘭在2013GDP成長低於英國的其餘地區, 儘管這部分是由於在格蘭 Grangemouth 煉油廠的勞資糾紛.[144]
德意志銀行在公民投票之前發行一份報告, 媒體在913日報導,
David Folkerts-Landau, 銀行的首席經濟學家, 曾總結說:"一個國家要退出一個300歲的聯盟, 雖然這聽起來是簡單且不需成本, 沒有什麼事情可以比從事實來得更多".
Folkerts-Landau
認為在投""的票之後的經濟前景是"不可理解的",援引溫斯頓·丘吉爾在1925年的黃金標準決定, 以及觸發了2030年代的大蕭條的美國聯邦儲備的行動,如同其他類似成度的錯誤行為.
瑞士瑞銀金融服務公司支持的德意志銀行的立場.[145]
獨立的支持者說, 蘇格蘭沒有發揮其全部的經濟潛力, 因為它是與在英國的其他地區的受到相同的經濟政策.[146][147]
 

In 2013, the Jimmy Reid Foundation published a report stating that UK economic policy had become "overwhelmingly geared to helping London, meaning Scotland and other UK regions suffer from being denied the specific, local policies they need".[148]
Later in January 2014, Colin Fox said that Scotland is "penalised by an economic model biased towards the South East of England".[146]
In November 2013, Chic Brodie said that Scotland was "deprived" of economic benefit in the 1980s after the Ministry of Defence blocked oil exploration off the West of Scotland, ostensibly to avoid interference with the UK”s nuclear weapons arsenal.[149] 

2013, Jimmy Reid基金會發布一份報告指出, 英國的經濟政策已經成為 "一面倒地傾向於幫助倫敦,這意味著蘇格蘭和英國其他地區, 他們所需要的具體的, 局部的政策遭受到否決.[148]
後來在20141, Colin Fox , 蘇格蘭 "是被一個偏向於英格蘭東南部的經濟模所懲罰."[146]
201311, Chic Brodie, 在部國防部封鎖了蘇格蘭西部石油勘探, 表面上是為了避免干擾英國的核武庫之後, 蘇格蘭在1980年代是 "被剝奪" 經濟利益的.[149]

Currency
Another major economic issue was the currency that would be used by an independent Scotland.[150]
The principal options were to establish an independent Scottish currency, join the euro, or retain the pound sterling[150] (a form of currency substitution).[151]
Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, the SNP”s policy was that an independent Scotland should adopt the euro,[152] though this was relegated to a long-term rather than short-term goal by the party”s 2009 conference.[153][154]
There was disagreement over whether Scotland would be required to join the euro if it wished to become an EU member state in its own right.
All new members are required to commit to joining the single currency as a prerequisite of EU membership, but they must first be party to ERM II for two years, something that requires an own currency.  

貨幣
另一個重大的經濟議題是, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭將被使用的貨幣.[150]
主要的幾個選擇是建立一個獨立的蘇格蘭的貨幣, 加入歐元區, 或保留英鎊[150](貨幣替代的一種形式).[151]
1990年代和2000年代, SNP的政策是一個獨立的蘇格蘭應該採用歐元,[152]
雖然2009年該黨的會議將其降級為一個長期的, 而不是短期的目標.[153][154]
對於如果蘇格蘭希望以自己的權利成為歐盟的成員國是否需要加入歐元區有同的意見分歧.
所有新成員必須承諾加入此單一貨幣以作為歐盟成員國資格的先決條件, 但他們必須先是 ERM II的會員兩年, 而這需要一個自己的貨幣.
 

The Scottish government argued that countries have a de facto opt-out from the euro because they are not obliged to join ERM II.[155]
For example, Sweden has never adopted the euro.
The people of Sweden rejected adopting the euro in a 2003 referendum and its government has stayed out by refusing to enter ERM II.[156][157]
The SNP favoured continued use of sterling in an independent Scotland through a formal currency union with the UK, with the Bank of England setting its interest rates and monetary policy and acting as its central bank.[158] 

蘇格蘭政府認為, 各個國家有一個實質上不加入歐元區的選擇性,  因為並沒有責任加入ERM II.[155]
例如, 瑞典為曾採用歐元.2003年的公民投票, 瑞典人民拒絕採用歐元, 且其政府拒絕進入ERMII而留在外面.[156][157]

SNP
偏向於經由與英國的正式貨幣聯盟, 在一個獨立的蘇格蘭繼續使用英鎊, 以英國央行設定其利率和貨幣政策, 並作為其中央銀行.[158] 

The white paper Scotland”s Future identified five key reasons that a currency union "would be in both Scotland and the UK”s interests immediately post-independence": Scotland”s main trading partner is the UK (2/3 of exports in 2011); "companies operating in Scotland and the UK [...have] complex cross-border supply chains"; there is high labour mobility; "on key measurements of an optimal currency area, the Scottish and UK economies score well"; and short-term economic trends in the UK and Scotland have "a relatively high degree of synchronicity".[81] 

"Scotland”s Future" 白皮書認定了貨幣聯盟在獨立後將立即是蘇格蘭和英國兩者的利益的五個關鍵原由:
蘇格蘭的主要貿易夥伴是英國(2011年出口量的2/3);

"
在蘇格蘭和英國運營的公司[...]複雜的跨境供應鏈";
有較高的勞動力流動性;

"
在一個最佳貨幣區的關鍵測量, 蘇格蘭和英國的經濟取得好成績";
以及在英國和蘇格蘭的短期經濟趨勢"具有相對較高程度的同步性."[81]


In June 2012, Alistair Darling said voters in the rest of the UK could choose not to be in a currency union with Scotland.[159][160]
Former Prime Minister Sir John Major rejected the idea of a currency union, saying it would require the UK to underwrite Scottish debt.[161]
Another former Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, said the SNP proposal would create a "colonial relationship" between Scotland and Westminster.[162]
The Welsh First Minister, Carwyn Jones, said in November 2013 that he would seek a veto on a currency union between Scotland and the rest of the UK.[163]
Yes Scotland said that a currency union would benefit both Scotland and the rest of the UK, as Scotland”s exports would boost the balance of payments and consequently strengthen the exchange rate of sterling.[164]  

20126, Alistair Darling表示, 英國其他地區的選民可以選擇不與蘇格蘭在一個貨幣聯盟內.[159][160] 前首相John Major爵士拒絕了貨幣聯盟的想法, 認為這將需要英國承擔蘇格蘭的債務.[161]
另一位前首相Gordon Brown表示, SNP提案將製造出一個蘇格蘭和Westminster之間的 "殖民關係".[162]
威爾士第一部長, Carwyn Jones, 201311月說, 他將尋求在蘇格蘭和英國其他地區之間的貨幣聯盟的否決.[163]

"
是的  蘇格蘭", 貨幣聯盟將有利於蘇格蘭和英國其他地區兩方, 因為蘇格蘭的出口將促進支出平衡, 因而強化英鎊的匯率.[164] 

Meanwhile, UK economists and financial experts stated that the effect on the balance of payments and the exchange rate would be "largely neutral".[165][166]
Sterling fell by almost one cent against the US dollar in a day early in September 2014, due to an opinion poll showing a swing towards the Yes campaign.[167]
The Financial Times reported a few days later that "Asset managers, investors and pension savers are moving billions of pounds out of Scotland" because of fears that Scotland would leave the UK.[168]
The newspaper also reported that ""exit clauses" are being inserted into commercial property contracts in Scotland to allow buyers to scrap deals or renegotiate prices if voters opt for independence"".[168]
The Scottish government stated that not having a currency union could cost businesses in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland £500 million in transaction charges when trading with an independent Scotland;[169][170]  

同時, 英國經濟學家和金融專家指出, 對於支出平衡和匯率的影響將是 "大致上是中立的".[165][166]
20149月的一天稍早, 由於一項民意調查顯是示向著 "是的競選活動" 擺盪, 英鎊對美元下跌接近於一分.[167]
英國金融時報幾天後報導說, "資產管理公司, 投資者和養老儲蓄者正將數十億英鎊移出蘇格蘭",因為擔心蘇格蘭將離開英國.[168]
這家報紙還報導說, ""退出條款" 被正被插入蘇格蘭商業物業合約中, 讓買方放棄交易或者重新談判價格, 如果選民選擇獨立."[168]
蘇格蘭政府表示, 沒有貨幣聯盟, 對於英格蘭, 威爾士和北愛爾蘭的商務, 在與獨立的蘇格蘭貿易時, 可能有5億英鎊的交易費用.[169][170]
 

Plaid Cymru treasury spokesperson Jonathan Edwards commented that such costs were a "threat to Welsh business".[170]
Scottish Labour leader Johann Lamont said that any additional transaction costs would fall largely on Scottish companies, costing businesses in Scotland 11 times more than those in England.[171]
The Institute of Directors stated that any new transaction costs would "pale in comparison to the financial danger of entering an unstable currency union."[171]
If Scotland joined a currency union with the UK, some fiscal policy constraints could be imposed on the Scottish state.[150] Banking experts have said that being the "junior partner" in a currency arrangement could amount to "a loss of fiscal autonomy for Scotland".[172]
Dr Angus Armstrong of the National Institute of Economic and Social Research wrote that the implicit constraints on its economic policy would be more restrictive than the explicit ones it faces as a member of the UK.[173]  

Plaid Cymru 財政部發言人 Jonathan Edwards 評論說, 這樣的成本是一個 "威爾士商務的威脅".[170]
蘇格蘭工黨領袖 Johann Lamont, 任何額外的交易成本將在大部份落在蘇格蘭的公司上,造成蘇格蘭企業的成本比在英國的那些多11倍以上.[171]
董事協會指出任何新的交易成本 "與進入一個不穩定的貨幣聯盟的金融風險相比較, 會是隱約的". [171]
如果蘇格蘭加入了與英國的貨幣聯盟, 一些財政政策的約束可能會加在給蘇格蘭國家.[150]
理財專家說, 作為一個貨幣安排的 "小夥伴" 可能達到 "蘇格蘭財政自主權的喪失".[172]
國家經濟與社會研究研究所的Angus Armstrong博士寫道, 在其經濟政策上的隱含約束, 會比作為英國的一員所面臨的明確內容更加受限制.[173]
 

Salmond said in February 2014 that an independent Scotland in a currency union would retain tax and spending powers.[174]
Gavin McCrone, former chief economic adviser to the Scottish Office, stated that Scotland”s retention of the pound would be pragmatic initially, but problematic thereafter if a Scottish government wished to implement independent policies,and he warned that keeping the pound could lead to the relocation of Scottish banks to London.[175]
The Chancellor of the Exchequer, as well as equivalent post-holders in the two other main UK political parties, rejected the idea of a formal currency union with an independent Scotland in February 2014.[176]
Shadow Chancellor Ed Balls said the SNP”s proposals for a currency union were "economically incoherent",[177] and that any currency option for an independent Scotland would be "less advantageous than what we have across the UK today".[178][179]
After the three main UK political parties ruled out a formal currency union as a possibility, the Adam Smith Institute said that the economies of Panama, Ecuador and El Salvador "demonstrate that the informal use of another country”s currency can foster a healthy financial system and economy".[151] 

20142 Salmond 說在貨幣聯盟裏的一個獨立的蘇格蘭將保留稅收和支出的權力.[174]Gavin McCrone 前蘇格蘭辦公室首席經濟顧問, 說剛開始時, 蘇格蘭的保留英鎊將是務實的,但此後容易產生問題, 如果蘇格蘭政府希望執行獨立的政策,他警告說, 保持英鎊可能導致蘇格蘭銀行搬遷到倫敦.[175]
2014年二月. 財政大臣, 以及在其他兩個英國主要政黨的同等職位持有者, 拒絕了與與獨立的蘇格蘭的正式貨幣聯盟的設想.[176]
影子大臣Ed Balls, SNP的貨幣聯盟建議是 "經濟上的不合邏輯",[177]而且一個獨立的蘇格蘭的任何一種貨幣的選項將是 "不如我們今天涵蓋全英國那麼有利".[178][179]
在三個主要英國政黨排除了正式的貨幣聯盟作為一種可能性之後,亞當·斯密研究所表示, 巴拿馬, 厄瓜多爾和薩爾瓦多
"證明非正式使用另一個國家的貨幣可以培養一個健康的金融體系和經濟".[151] 

In September 2014, former European Commissioner Olli Rehn stated that an independent Scotland would be unable to meet EU membership requirements if it shared sterling informally, as it would not have an independent central bank.[180]
Rehn”s comment was disputed by Salmond, who restated his belief that a sterling currency union would be formed and pledged to create the necessary financial institutions.[180]
The Scottish Socialist Party favoured an independent Scottish currency, pegged to sterling in the short term.[181]
The Scottish Green Party said that keeping sterling as "a short term transitional arrangement" should not be ruled out, but also said that the Scottish Government should "keep an open mind about moving towards an independent currency".[182]
The Jimmy Reid Foundation, in early 2013, described retention of the pound as a good transitional arrangement, but recommended the eventual establishment of an independent Scottish currency to "insulate" Scotland from the UK”s "economic instability".[183]
Other proponents of an independent Scottish currency included "Yes Scotland" chairman Dennis Canavan and former SNP deputy leader Jim Sillars.[184]
On 9 September 2014, Mark Carney, governor of the Bank of England, said that a currency union between an independent Scotland and the remainder of the UK would be "incompatible with sovereignty".  

20149, 前歐盟委員Olli Rehn,如果它非正式地共享英鎊, 因為它不會有一個獨立的中央銀行,一個獨立的蘇格蘭將無法達到歐盟成員國的要求.[180]
Rehn
的評論為Salmond所爭議, 他重申, 他相信一個英鎊貨幣聯盟將形成, 並承諾建立必要的金融機構.[180]
蘇格蘭社會黨青睞獨立的蘇格蘭貨幣, 在短期內盯住英鎊.[181]
蘇格蘭綠黨表示, 維持英鎊的 "短期過渡性安排" 不應該被排除,但也表示, 蘇格蘭政府應 "保持有關邁向獨立貨幣的開放心態".[182]

Jimmy Reid
基金會, 2013年初, 說明保持英鎊是一個很好的過渡性安排, 但建議最終建立一個獨立的蘇格蘭貨幣使蘇格蘭"隔離"英國的"經濟不穩定".[183]
其他獨立的蘇格蘭幣
​​的支持者包括 "是的  蘇格蘭"主席 Dennis Canavan和前SNP副領導Jim Sillars.[184]
201499, Mark Carney, 英國央行行長表示, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭和英國的其餘部分之間的貨幣聯盟將是"主權不相容".
 

Carney was involved in a "Q&A" session at the Trades Union Congress and further explained that cross-border ties on tax, spending and banking rules are a prerequisite: "You only have to look across the continent to look at what happens if you don”t have those components in place ... You need tax, revenues and spending flowing across those borders to help equalise, to an extent, some of the inevitable differences [across the union]."[185]  

A spokesperson for the SNP”s finance minister responded, saying "Successful independent countries such as France, Germany, Finland and Austria all share a currency - and they are in charge of 100% of their tax revenues, as an independent Scotland would be.
At present under devolution, Scotland controls only 7% of our revenues."[185]
Carney”s comments received vocal support from Darling and the GMB trade union, the latter of which supports the retention of the current UK formation.[185] 

Carney在行業聯盟大會中參與了一個 "QA"會議, 並進一步解釋說, 對稅收的跨界聯繫, 支出和銀行規則是前提條件: "你只要看看整個大陸看看會發生什麼, 如果你沒有這些組件...你需要納稅, 收入和支出跨越這些邊界的流動,以在一定程度上幫助平衡一些[跨聯盟]的不可避免的分歧".[185]
一位SNP財務部長的發言人回應說 "成功的獨立國家, 如法國, 德國, 芬蘭和奧地利都共享一個貨幣 - 他們是負責其稅收收入的100, 如同一個獨立的蘇格蘭將能夠的成為的.
在目前下放之下, 蘇格蘭只控制7%的收益".[185]

Carney
的言論獲得DarlingGMB聯盟口頭上的支持, 後者支持目前英國構成的保留.[185]  

Government revenues and expenditure
The Barnett formula has resulted in higher per-capita public spending in Scotland than England.[186]
If North Sea oil revenue is calculated on a geographic basis, Scotland also produces more per capita tax revenue than the UK average.[187][188]
The Institute for Fiscal Studies reported in November 2012 that a geographic share of North Sea oil would more than cover the higher public spending, but warned that oil prices are volatile and that oil is a finite resource.[188] The Government Expenditure and Revenue Scotland report for 2012/13 found that North Sea oil revenue had fallen by 41.5% and that Scotland”s public spending deficit had increased from £4.6 billion to £8.6 billion.[189][190]
In May 2014, the UK government published an analysis identifying a "Union dividend" of £1,400 per year for each person in Scotland, mainly due to the higher level of public spending under the Barnett formula.[191]
The Scottish government disputed this analysis, saying that each Scot would be £1,000 better off per year under independence by 2030.[191]  

政府收入和支出
Barnett
公式導致在蘇格蘭的人均公共支出比英格蘭高.[186]
如果北海石油收入計算按地理區域, 蘇格蘭也產生比英國平均水平更多的人均稅收收入.[187][188 ]
財政研究所在201211月報告說, 北海油田的地理份額是可以超過較高的公共支出的支付,但警告稱, 油價是易波動的, 而且石油是一種有限的資源.[188]

"2012/13
蘇格蘭政府開支和收入報告" 發現北海石油收入已下降了41.5, 而蘇格蘭的公共支出赤字已經由46億英鎊增加到86億英鎊.[189][190]
20145, 英國政府公佈的一個分析, 確定在蘇格蘭每個人每年的1400英鎊的"聯盟紅利",主要是由於在巴尼特式下的更高的公共支出水平.[191]
蘇格蘭政府對此分析提出反駁說, 在獨立之下, 2030年每個蘇格蘭人每年將更好1000英鎊.[191]
 

Three economic experts said that both estimates were possible, but they both depended on unknown variables such as the division of UK government debt, future North Sea oil revenues, possible spending commitments of an independent Scotland and future productivity gains.[192]
In its analysis, the UK government also estimated setup costs of £1.5 billion (1% of GDP) for establishing an independent state, or possibly £2.7 billion (180 public bodies costing £15 million each).[193][194]
Patrick Dunleavy of the London School of Economics criticised the UK government”s "ludicrous" use of his research in arriving at the latter figure.[194]
The Treasury said that their main figure (£1.5 billion) was based on estimates by professor Robert Young of Western University.[195][196]
Two of the main unionist parties in Scotland called on the SNP to publish their own estimate of the setup costs of an independent state,[194] but the Scottish government said that an estimate was not possible as the final bill would depend on negotiations with the rest of the UK.[197]
Professor Dunleavy estimated immediate setup costs of £200 million in a report commissioned by the Sunday Post newspaper,[198] with "total transition costs" of between £600 million and £1,500 million in the first 10 years of independence.[199]

三個經濟專家表示, 這兩個估計都是可能的, 但它們都依賴於未知的變量,如英國政府債務的分攤, 未來的北海石油收入, 獨立的蘇格蘭可能支出的承諾, 和未來的生產收益.[192]
在其分析中, 英國政府還估計為 £15(GDP1) 為建立一個獨立的國家的設置成本,也可能是 £27(180個公共機構, 每個耗資1500萬英鎊).[193][194]
倫敦經濟學院的Patrick Dunleavy  批評英國政府的 "可笑的" 利用他的研究達到後一個數字.[194]
財政部說, 他們的主要數字(15億英鎊)是基於西方大學Robert Young 教授的估計.[195][196]
在蘇格蘭的主要支持聯盟的兩個政黨, 呼籲SNP發布的一個他們自己的獨立國家的建立費用的估計,[194]但蘇格蘭政府說, 個估計是不可能, 因為最終的法案將取決於與英國其他地區的協商談判.[197]

Dunleavy
在一份由星期日郵報委託的報告, 估計2億英鎊的立即設立費用,[198]以及在獨立的前10個年的6億英鎊及15億英鎊之間的 "全面轉型成本".[199] 

The credit rating that an independent Scotland would merit also became a subject of debate.[200][201]
The credit-rating agency Fitch stated in 2012 that it could not give an opinion on what rating Scotland would have, because Scottish finances would largely depend on the result of negotiations between the UK and Scotland on the division of assets and liabilities.[201]
Standard & Poor”s, another credit-rating agency, asserted in February 2014 that Scotland would face "significant, but not unsurpassable" challenges, and that "even excluding North Sea output and calculating per capita GDP only by looking at onshore income,Scotland would qualify for our highest economic assessment".[202]
Research published by Moody”s in May 2014 said that an independent Scotland would be given an A rating, comparable with Poland, the Czech Republic and Mexico.[203]
An A rating would be two grades below its current rating for the UK, which Moody”s said would be unaffected by Scottish independence.[203] 

一個獨立的蘇格蘭將獲得的信用評級是也成為爭議的話題.[200][201]
信用評級機構Fitch2012年指出, 不可能給出蘇格蘭會有什麼等級的意見,因為蘇格蘭財政將在很大程度上取決於英國和蘇格蘭之間資產和負債的劃分的協商談判的結果.[201]
標準普爾, 另一信用評級機構, 20142月宣稱 蘇格蘭將面臨 "顯著, 但不是不可逾越的" 挑戰,
"即使不包括北海產出, 而只看岸上的收入來計算人均國內生產總值, 蘇格蘭有資格獲得我們的最高經濟評估".[202]
穆迪在20145月發布的研究指出, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭將給予A評級, 可與波蘭, 捷克共和國和墨西哥相比較,[203]
這是個比它現有給英國的低兩個級次的評級, 穆迪表示, 它將不會受到蘇格蘭獨立的影響.[203]

Energy
Energy market
Most issues regarding energy are controlled by the UK government,[204] although control over planning laws allows the Scottish government to prevent the construction of new nuclear power stations in Scotland.[204] Supporters of independence want to retain a single energy market for the whole of Great Britain after independence, in order to maintain price stability and support for suppliers.[204]
Opponents have said that independence would threaten the single energy market.[204] Euan Phimister, professor of economics at Aberdeen University, has said that although independence would affect the relationship, it is likely that there would be continued English demand for electricity generated in Scotland because OFGEM projections suggest that there is little spare capacity.[205][206]

能源
能源市場
大多數關於能源議題是由英國政府所主導[204]
儘管控制規劃中的法律可以讓蘇格蘭政府防止新的核電站在蘇格蘭建造.[204]
獨立的支持者想要在獨立後為整個英國保留一個單一的能源市場, 以保持價格穩定和供應商的支持.[204]
反對者表示, 獨立將威脅到單一能源市場.[204]

Euan Phimister, Aberdeen
大學的經濟學教授說, 雖然獨立會影響的關係, 很可能在蘇格蘭產生的電力上, 會繼續有英語區的需求,因為OFGEM預測表明, 備用容量是很少的[205][206]. 

The second largest supplier of energy in the UK, SSE plc, believes that a single market would be the most likely outcome under independence, although it would require negotiations and may involve changes to the existing system.[207]
Labour MP Caroline Flint has said that independence would mean higher energy bills in Scotland, as its customers would have to pay more to support renewable energy in Scotland, which represents one third of the UK total.[205]
Euan Phimister has said that bills are likely to increase across the whole of Great Britain because renewable schemes and new nuclear power stations in England are both receiving higher subsidies than the power plants which will shortly close due to environmental regulations.[205]
He also said that there is a distinction between existing and proposed renewable schemes in that the existing schemes have already been paid for, whereas any new construction requires the promise of subsidy from the consumer.[205]
Energy and Climate Change Secretary Ed Davey stated Scottish generators would no longer be eligible for UK subsidies, which would increase energy bills for consumers.[208] 

在英國能源的第二大供應商, SSE相信,一個單一的市場會是獨立下最可能的結果.雖然它需要談判, 並可能涉及現有的系統的更改.[207]
工黨議員Caroline Flint曾表示, 獨立將意味著在蘇格蘭更高的能源帳單, 因為它的客戶將不得不支付更多以支持在蘇格蘭的可再生能源,它代表了英國總量的三分之一.[205]

Euan Phimister
曾表示, 帳單是可能在整個大不列顛都會增加, 因為可再生能源的計劃和新的核電站在英國都接受更高的補貼,比起由於環保法規, 將在短期內關閉的電廠.[205] 他還表示, 在現有方案及提出的再生的計劃有所區別, 在於現有方案已經被支付了, 而任何新的建設則需要得到消費者的補貼承諾.[205]
能源與氣候變遷大臣Ed Davey說蘇格蘭發電機組將不再有英國補貼的資格, 這將增加消費者的能源費用.[208]
 

North Sea oil
Approximately 90% of the United Kingdom”s North Sea oil fields are located in Scottish territorial waters.
The tax revenue generated from an offshore site is not counted within the nation or region nearest to it, but is instead allocated to the UK Continental Shelf.
The revenue from North Sea oil has been used to support current expenditure, rather than creating a sovereign oil fund.[209][210]
The SNP believes that a portion of the revenues should be invested in a sovereign oil fund.
The Scottish government, citing industry regulator Oil and Gas UK, estimated in Scotland”s Future that there were 24 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe) remaining to be extracted.[211]
Sir Ian Wood, founder of oil services company Wood Group, said in August 2014 that he believed there were between 15 and 16.5 billion boe and that the impact from declining production would be felt by 2030.[211]
In September 2014, an investigation by industry recruitment website Oil and Gas People stated that there were extensive oil reserves to the west of the Western Isles and Shetland.[212]
The report anticipated that the region would be developed within the next 10 years because of improvements in drilling technology, rig design and surveying.[212] 

北海石油
大約90%的英國北海油田位於蘇格蘭海域.
從離岸的地點所產生的稅收不是計入最告靠近它的國家或地區, 而是被分配到英國大陸架.
來自北海的石油收入被用於支持當前的開支, 而不是創建一個主權的石油基金.[209][210]

SNP
認為, 收入的一部分應當投資於一個主權石油基金.
蘇格蘭政府, 援引行業的監管者 "英國石油和天然氣", "蘇格蘭的未來" 估計, 還有剩有240億桶的油當量(BOE)的可被提取.[211]

Ian Wood
爵士, Wood石油服務公司集團的創辦人, 20148月說, 他相信有150億至165億的油當量(BOE), 產量下降的影響將在2030年感覺到[211]
20149, 調查的 行業招聘網站 Oil and Gas People指出,在西部群島和 Shetland西部有大量的石油蘊藏.[212]
該報告預計, 該地區將因鑽井技術, 鑽井平台的設計和勘測的進步, 在未來10年之內被開發起來.[212]

European Union
See also: Future enlargement of the European Union § Possible future scenarios
The SNP advocated that an independent Scotland should become a full member state of the European Union (EU) with some exemptions, such as not having to adopt the euro.
There was debate over whether Scotland would be required to re-apply for membership, and if it could retain the UK”s opt-outs.[213][214]
The European Commission (EC) offered to provide an opinion to an existing member state on the matter, but the British government confirmed it would not seek this advice, as it did not want to negotiate the terms of independence ahead of the referendum.[215] 

歐盟
另請參閱:歐盟未來的擴大§可能的未來情景

SNP
主張獨立的蘇格蘭應該成為歐洲聯盟(歐盟)的正式成員國, 有一些例外, 比如沒有採用歐元.
對於蘇格蘭是否需要重新申請會員資格以及它是否能保持英國的"選擇-不加入"的項目,是有爭論的.[213][214]
歐盟委員會(EC)表示願意在這件事情上提供現有的成員國意見,但英國政府證實它將不會尋求這一建議,因為它不希望提前於在立公民投票之前協商談判獨立的條款.[215]

There is no precedent for an EU member state dividing into two sovereign countries after joining the EU.[216]
Supporters of independence stated that an independent Scotland would become an EU member by treaty amendment under Article 48 of the EU treaties.[217]
Opponents say that this would not be possible and that an independent Scotland would need to apply for EU membership under Article 49, which would require ratification by each member state.[217]
Christina McKelvie, Convener of the European and External Relations Committee of the Scottish Parliament, in March 2014 asked Viviane Reding, Vice-President of the European Commission, whether Article 48 would apply.[218]
Reding replied that EU treaties would no longer apply to a territory when it secedes from a member state.[219]
She also indicated that Article 49 would be the route to apply to become a member of the EU.[219]
José Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, stated earlier that an independent Scotland would have to apply for membership, while the rest of the UK would continue to be a member.[220]
In 2014, he reiterated that Scotland joining the EU would be”extremely difficult, if not impossible".[221] 

沒有歐盟成員在加入歐盟之後分開為兩個主權國家的先例.[216]
獨立的支持者表示, 根據歐盟條約第48條的條約修正, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭將成為歐盟成員國.[217]
反對者說這是不可能的, 而且一個獨立的蘇格蘭將需要根據第49條申請加入歐盟會員,這需要各會員國的批準.[217]

Christina McKelvie,
蘇格蘭議會的歐洲及對外關係委員會的召集人, 20143月要求Viviane Reding, 歐盟委員會副主席, 是否第48條將適用.[218]
Reding
回答說, 歐盟條約將不再適用於一個領土, 當它從成員國脫離.[219] 她還表示, 49條將是申請成為歐盟一員的途徑.[219]
José Manuel Barroso,
歐盟委員會主席, 稍早時聲明, 獨立的蘇格蘭將必須要申請會員資格, 而英國其他地區將繼續成為會員.[220]
2014, 他重申, 蘇格蘭加入歐盟將是 "非常困難, 即使不是不可能的".[221]

The former prime minister Sir John Major suggested in November 2013 that Scotland would need to re-apply for EU membership, but that this would mean overcoming opposition to separatists among many existing member states, particularly Spain.[222]
It may block Scottish membership of the EU, amid fears of repercussions with separatist movements in Catalonia and the Basque country:[223]
in November 2013 the Spanish Prime Minister, Mariano Rajoy, said: "I know for sure that a region that would separate from a member state of the European Union would remain outside the European Union and that should be known by the Scots and the rest of the European citizens."[224]
He also stated that an independent Scotland would become a”third country" outside the EU and would require the consent of all 28 EU states to rejoin the EU, but that he would not seek to block an independent Scotland”s entry.[224]  

前首相John Major爵士在201311月提出, 蘇格蘭將需要重新申請加入歐盟, 但是這將意味著克服現有的許多成員國之間的分離主義者的反對, 尤其是西班牙.[222]由於擔憂在CataloniaBasque地區的分離主義運動的影響, 這可能會阻止了蘇格蘭歐盟的會籍:[223]201311, 西班牙首相Mariano Rajoy表示: "我確信一個將從一個歐盟會員國分離的區域,這將留在歐盟以外, 而且應該是蘇格蘭和其他歐洲公民已知道的."[224] 他還指出, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭將成為歐盟以外的 "第三國",而且需要所有28個歐盟成員國的同意以重新加入歐盟, 但他不會尋求阻止一個獨立的蘇格蘭的加入.[224] 

Salmond cited a letter from Mario Tenreiro of the EC”s secretariat general that said it would be legally possible to renegotiate the situation of the UK and Scotland within the EU by unanimous agreement of all member states.[225]
Spain”s position was reiterated two days before the referendum by the Spanish European affairs minister, who said "It is crystal clear that any partner member-state that leaves the member state is out of the European Union.
If they want to apply again, they would have to follow the procedure of article 49 of the treaties."[226]
Professor Sir David Edward, a former European Court judge, stated that the EU institutions and member states would be "obliged" to start negotiations before independence took effect to decide the future relationship.[227]
He said this would be achieved by agreed amendment of the existing Treaties (Article 48), rather than a new Accession Treaty (Article 49).[214][227] Graham Avery, the EC”s honorary director general, agreed with Edward.[228] Avery wrote a report, published by the European Policy Centre, which said that EU leaders would probably allow Scotland to be part of the EU because of the legal and practical difficulties that would arise from excluding it.[229]  

Salmond 引用來自歐盟的總秘書處的 Mario Tenreiro的一個封信表示,經由歐盟所有成員國的一致暱名同意來重新協商談判英國和蘇格蘭在歐盟內的情況, 將在法律上有可能.[225]
西班牙歐洲事務部長在公民投票的前兩天, 重申了西班牙的立場, 它說 "有一點是透明清楚的, 任何離開成員狀態的夥伴的成員狀態是不在歐盟之內的. 如果他們想再次申請, 他們將必須要按照條約的第49條的程序".[226]

David Edward
爵士教授, 前歐洲法院法官表示, 歐盟機構和成員國將有責任在獨立生效之前開始協商談判以決定未來的關係.[227]
他說, 這將通過同意修改現有的條約來實現(48),而不是一個新的入盟條約(49).[214][227]

Graham Avery,
歐盟的名譽總幹事, 認同Edward.[228]  Avery艾利寫了一份報告, 由歐洲政策中心公佈, 表示, 由於排除它在外時所將產生的於法律和實際困難, 歐盟領導人可能會允許蘇格蘭成為歐盟的一部分.[229] 

In a research paper, Professor Sionaidh Douglas-Scott of Oxford University stated that the EU law normally takes a "pragmatic and purposive approach" to issues that are not already provided for by existing treaties.[230]
Research published by the Economic and Social Research Council in August 2014 concluded that it was unlikely that an independent Scotland would be cut off from the rights and obligations of EU membership for any period of time, even if Scotland was not formally a member state of the EU from its date of independence.[231]
In January 2013, the Republic of Ireland”s Minister of European Affairs, Lucinda Creighton, stated that "if Scotland were to become independent, Scotland would have to apply for membership and that can be a lengthy process";[232] she later clarified, writing that she "certainly did not at any stage suggest that Scotland could, should or would be thrown out of the EU".[233]

英國牛津大學Sionaidh Douglas-Scott教授在一份研究報告表示, 對於尚未由現有條約規定的議題歐盟法律通常採取 "務實和目的性的辦法".[230]
由經濟和社會研究評議會在20148月發布的研究得出結論說, 在任何一段時間內內, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭是不可能將被切斷來自歐盟成員國的權利和義務,  即使蘇格蘭從它獨立之日起不是歐盟正式成員國.[231]
20131, 愛爾蘭共和國的歐洲事務部長的, Lucinda Creighton, :
"如果蘇格蘭要獨立, 蘇格蘭將必須申請會員資格, 並且可能是一個漫長的過程"[232], 她後來澄清寫道她 "肯定沒有在任何階段表明, 蘇格蘭可能, 應該或將要被拋出歐盟".[233]

In May 2013, Roland Vaubel, an Alternative für Deutschland adviser,[234] published a paper stating that Scotland would remain a member of the EU upon independence, and suggested there would need to be negotiations between the British and Scottish governments on sharing "the rights and obligations of the predecessor state". Vaubel also said that Barroso”s comments on the legal position had”no basis in the European treaties".[235]

20135, Roland Vaubel, Alternative für Deutschland 的顧問,[234]發表了一篇論文, 指出蘇格蘭獨立後, 將繼續為歐盟的一員, 並建議英國和蘇格蘭政府之間, 有需在 "前任狀態的權利和義務"的共享上進行談判. Vaubel還表示, Barroso在的法律立場的評價 "在歐洲條約裏沒有依據".[235] 

Future status of the United Kingdom in the European Union

In January 2013, the British Prime Minister, David Cameron, committed the Conservative Party to a referendum in 2017 on UK membership of the EU if they win the 2015 general election.[236]
Legislation for an in/out EU referendum was approved by the House of Commons in November 2013.[237]
Studies have shown some divergence in attitudes to the EU in Scotland and the rest of the UK.
Although a Scottish government review based on survey data between 1999 and 2005 found that people in Scotland reported "broadly similar Eurosceptic views as people in Britain as a whole",[238]
Ipsos MORI noted in February 2013 that voters in Scotland said they would choose to remain in the EU in a referendum, while there was a majority for withdrawal in England.[239]
Yes Scotland said that the UK government plans for an EU referendum have caused "economic uncertainty" for Scotland.[240]
During a CBI Scotland event attended by Cameron, businessman Mike Rake criticised him for creating uncertainty about EU membership.[241]
In response to such criticism, Cameron pointed to examples of inward investment in the UK that he said was not happening in the rest of Europe.[241]
Some commentators have suggested that the UK leaving the EU would undermine the case for Scottish independence, since free trade, freedom of movement and the absence of border controls with the UK could no longer be assumed.[242][243][244] 

英國在歐盟未來的地位

20131, 英國首相 David Cameron, 承諾保守黨在2017年進行對英國的歐盟會籍進行公民投票, 如果他們贏得2015年大選.[236]
下議院在201311月批准了 入/出歐盟的公民投票的立法.[237]
研究顯示在蘇格蘭和英國其他地區對於歐盟的態度的一些分歧.
雖然蘇格蘭政府基於1999年和2005年間的調查數據的檢視發現,  在蘇格蘭的人們據報告是 "大體上與在英國作為一個整體的人們的歐洲懷疑論觀點相似",[238]
Ipsos MORI20132月指出, 在蘇格蘭選民表示, 公民投票中, 他們會選擇留在歐盟, 然而在英國有大部分撤出.[239]
"
是的  蘇格蘭", 英國政府計劃的一個歐盟公民投票, 造成蘇格蘭的"經濟不確定性".[240]
在一個Cameron出席的蘇格蘭CBI重要活動中, 商人Mike Rake批評他製造了有關歐盟成員國的不確定性.[241]
在響應這樣的批評時, Cameron指出在英國的外來投資的例子, 他說那不是發生在歐洲其他國家的.[241]
有論者認為, 英國離開歐盟將削弱蘇格蘭獨立的情況下, 因為與英國的自由貿易, 行動自由和沒有邊境管制等, 再也不能假設的.. [242] [243] [244]

Health care
Responsibility for health care has been devolved to the Scottish Parliament since it was established in 1999.[245]
The Scottish government has enacted health policies which are different from those in England, such as abolishing charges for prescriptions and elderly personal care.[245]
NHS Scotland has been operationally independent of the NHS in the rest of the United Kingdom since the formation of the NHS in 1948.[246][247] Supporters of independence argue that independence is needed because possible reductions in the NHS budget in England would result in reduced funding for Scotland, which would make it difficult to maintain the existing service.[247]  

保健
健康照護的責任已下放給蘇格蘭議會, 自從它在1999年成立時.[245]
蘇格蘭政府已經制定一些不同於英國的衛生政策, 如取消處方和老年人個人護理的收費.[245]
自從NHS1948年形成時, NHS蘇格蘭一直是獨立運作於英國的其他地區的NHS之外的[246] [247]
獨立的支持者認為, 獨立性是必要的, 因為在英國的NHS預算的削減, 可能會導致蘇格蘭資金的減少,這將使它很難維持現有的服務.[247]
 

Harry Burns a former chief medical officer for Scotland, said in July 2014 that he thought independence could be beneficial for public health because it may give people greater control of their lives.[248]
In May 2014, about 100 medical workers, including surgeons, consultant doctors, GPs, pharmacists, dentists, hospital porters and janitors joined a pro-independence campaign group called NHS for Yes.
Its co-founder described health care in Scotland as "a shining example of self-government for Scotland demonstrably being far better than Westminster government" and said independence would "protect [NHS Scotland] from future Westminster funding cuts, and the damaging impact of privatisation south of the border".[249]
Two days before the referendum, papers indicating "a funding gap of £400–£450m in the next two financial years, 2015–17", for Scotland”s NHS, resulting from Scottish government policies, were leaked to the media.[250] A Scottish government spokesperson commented that the papers were from "part of the regular discussions among NHS leaders to plan for NHS Scotland”s future".[250] 

Harry Burns蘇格蘭的前首席醫療官, 20147月表示, 他認為獨立能有利於公眾健康, 因為它可以給人們更能夠控制自己的生活.[248]
20145, 100醫務人員, 包括醫生, 顧問醫生, 全科醫生, 藥劑師, 牙醫, 醫院搬運工和門衛加入了一個名為 NHS for Yes 的獨立運動團體.
其聯合創始人描述蘇格蘭的醫療保健為 "一個可證明是遠超過Westminster政府的蘇格蘭自治的閃亮範例"並表示獨立是 "保護[NHS蘇格蘭]未來來自於Westminster的經費削減,以及邊界南部的私有化的破壞性衝擊.[249]
公民投票前兩天, 文章 指到 "由蘇格蘭政府政策所造成的, 在蘇格蘭NHS未來兩個財政年度(2015-17)4.0-4.5億英鎊的資金缺口, 被洩露給媒體.[250]
蘇格蘭政府發言人評論說, 該文是由 "NHS領導人之間, 在進行有關於NHS蘇格蘭的未來的計劃的定期磋商的一部分."[250]
 

Specialist treatment

Opponents of independence say that being part of the UK is crucial in allowing Scots to obtain specialist treatment elsewhere in the UK.[247]
At present, NHS Scotland has reciprocal arrangements in place with the NHS services in the rest of the UK and specialist services are shared.[246]
Vote No Borders, a unionist campaign group, ran a cinema advert claiming that Scots would find it more difficult to obtain treatment at the Great Ormond Street Hospital(GOSH), a London facility which specialises in care for children.[251][252]
Vote No Borders withdrew the advert after GOSH complained that it had not been consulted about the advert and stated that they have reciprocal health care agreements with numerous countries.[251][252] 

專科治療
反對獨立者說, 作為英國的一部分對於讓蘇格蘭人在英國其他地方獲得專科治療是的關鍵.[247]
目前, NHS蘇格蘭與在英國其他NHS的服務有互惠安排, 而且專業服務的是共用的.[246]

Vote No Borders,
一個支持統一的競選運動團體, 到電影院廣告, 聲稱蘇格蘭人會發現它更難獲得Great Ormond Street醫院(GOSH)的治療, GOSH是一個倫敦的設施, 專門照顧孩子.[251][252]
GOSH抱怨說, 它沒有被徵詢有關廣告, 並表示, 他們與許多國家有互惠醫療保健協議後, Vote No Borders 撤回了廣告.[251][252]
 

International relations
The white paper on independence proposes that an independent Scotland would open around 100 embassies around the world.[111]
David Cameron has suggested an independent Scotland would be "marginalised" at the United Nations, where the UK is a permanent member of the Security Council.[253]
John Major has suggested that, after Scottish independence, the remaining UK could lose its permanent seat at the UN Security Council.[254] 

國際關係
獨立的白皮書提出, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭將在世界各地開起約100處大使館.[111]
David Cameron曾提到一個獨立的蘇格蘭在聯合國將被 "邊緣化", 英國是安理會常任理事國.[253]
John Major
曾提到, 在蘇格蘭獨立之後, 英國剩下的部份可能失去其在聯合國安理會的常任席位.[254]  

Monarchy
See also: Union of the Crowns

君主制
另請參閱:Union of the Crowns

A republic is favoured by some pro-independence political parties and organisations,including the Scottish Green Party[255] and the Scottish Socialist Party.[256]
The SNP is in favour of an independent Scotland retaining the Queen as head of state.
Christine Grahame has said she believes that party policy is to hold a referendum on the matter,[257] due to a 1997 SNP conference resolution.[258]
Some media reports suggested that the announcement on 8 September of the pregnancy of the Duchess of Cambridge with her second child would have an effect on the outcome of the referendum, scheduled to take place less than a fortnight later, providing a boost to pro-union sentiment.[259][260][261][262]
The Queen”s official position on Scottish independence is neutral.[263]
Just prior to the referendum, Elizabeth II said in a private conversation that she hoped people would "think very carefully about the future", a statement quickly published widely in the media.[264] 

共和國的體制受到一些主張獨立的政黨和組織, 包括蘇格蘭綠黨[255]和蘇格蘭社會黨的青睞.[256]
SNP
是贊成獨立的蘇格蘭保留女王為國家元首.
Christine Grahame
, 她認為, 黨的政策是對此事舉辦公民投票,[257]基於1997年的SNP大會決議.[258]
有媒體報導認為, 98日宣布的劍橋公爵夫人她的第二個孩子的懷孕, 將對公民投票結果產生影響, 預定後不到兩週內要發生, 提供了一個推升支持通一的情緒.[259][260][261][262]
女王對蘇格蘭獨立的官方立場是中立的.[263]
在公民投票之前, 伊麗莎白二世在私人談話中說, 她希望人們將 "非常小心地考慮說未來", 一個廣泛迅速地在媒體上公佈的聲明.[264]
 

Pensions
UK State Pensions are managed by the UK government, paying £113.10 per week to a single person who is of state pension age in 2013/14.[265]
The state pension age for men is 65, but this is due to rise to 66 in 2020 and 67 by 2028.[265]
Research by the National Institute of Economic and Social Research found that an independent Scotland could delay these increases, due to a lower life expectancy.[266]
The Scotland”s Future white paper pledged to maintain a state pension at a similar rate to the UK.[267]
Former prime minister Gordon Brown said in April 2014 that Scotland had an above-average share of the public-sector pension bill and concluded that pensions would be protected by sharing risks and resources within the UK.[268]  

養老金
英國國家養老金是由英國政府管理, 支付每週113.10英鎊到具有2013/14訂的國家養老金年齡的個人.[265]
男性的國家養老金的年齡為65, 但這定於在2020年上升到66, 以及在2028年的67.[265]
由國家經濟和社會研究研究所的研究發現, 由於較低的預期壽命, 一個獨立的蘇格蘭可能延緩這些增加.[266]
蘇格蘭的未來 白皮書承諾維持類似於英國的國家養老金比率.[267]
前首相Gordon Brown20144月表示, 蘇格蘭有高於平均水準的公共部門養老金帳單的佔有比例, 並得出結論認為, 養老金將經由在英國範圍內分攤風險和資源而得到保護.[268]

UK government pensions minister Steve Webb said in May 2014 that Scots would be entitled to the current levels of state pension after independence because they had accumulated rights within the existing system.[269]
Webb went on to say that there would need to be negotiations between the UK and Scotland as to how these pensions would be paid.[269]
In relation to private pension schemes, a report by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland expressed concern that there were no plans to deal with EU regulations that may affect the funding of cross-border defined benefit schemes.[270]
The EC decided in March 2014 not to relax these regulations, which require cross-border schemes to be fully funded.[271] 

英國政府的養老金大臣Steve Webb 20145月說: 蘇格蘭在獨立之後, 將有當前國家養老金水平的資格, 因為他們已經在現行制度中積累了權利.[269]
韋伯繼續說, 英國和蘇格蘭之間有將需要就這些退休金如何支付進行協商談判.[269] 關於私人養老金計劃, 一份蘇格蘭特許會計師協會的報告由表示了關切提到, 沒有針對於應付歐盟可能會影響跨界定義的福利計劃資金規定的計劃.[270]
歐盟委員會在2014年三月決定不放鬆這些規則, 這需要跨界計劃以有充足的資金.[271]
 

Sport
Scotland hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, less than two months before the referendum.[272][273]
The Scottish team won a record number of gold medals, which Alan Bisset said would help give voters more belief and confidence.[272]
Sunday Herald columnist Ian Bell took an opposing view, saying that sporting success would be unlikely to aid support for independence due to the lengthy and passionate debate on the subject.[272]
Former Labour first minister Henry McLeish published a report in May 2014 that found no obvious barriers to an independent Scotland competing in the 2016 Summer Olympics.[274]
McLeish said that some athletes, particularly those in team sports, may choose to compete for the existing Great Britain team rather than Scotland as they would be nationals of both states.[274] 

體育
2014
, 蘇格蘭在Glasgow舉行的英聯邦運動會, 距離公民投票不到兩個月前.[272][273]蘇格蘭隊贏得了創紀錄數量的金牌, Alan Bisset, 它將有助於給選民更多的信念和信心.[272]
星期日先驅報的專欄作家Ian Bell採取了相反的觀點, 他說, 體育的成功不太可能幫助支持獨立, 由於對這個議題的冗長而激烈的辯論.[272]
前工黨部長Henry McLeish20145月發表了一份報告說, 發現一個獨立的蘇格蘭在2016年夏季奧運會的競賽沒有明顯的障礙.[274]

McLeish
, 一些運動員, 尤其是團隊運動, 可以選擇代表現有的大不列顛隊比賽, 而不是的蘇格蘭, 因為他們將是這兩個國的國民.[274] 

International Olympic Committee representative Craig Reedie pointed out that Scotland would need to obtain United Nations membership and may want to set its own Olympic qualifying standards, which would need to be done in the period between independence (March 2016) and the closing date for entries (July 2016).[274][275]
Gordon Brown pointed to the 2012 medal count for Great Britain, saying that it showed the success of a union that included the two nations.[276]
Scottish athletes were involved in 13 of the 65 medals won by Great Britain in 2012, but only three of those were won by Scots without assistance from other athletes.[277]
Sir Chris Hoy said in May 2013 that it could "take time" for Scottish athletes to "establish themselves in a new training environment", indicating that the good performance of Scottish athletes in the Great Britain team would not automatically translate into that of an independent Scotland team.[278]
Hoy also said that he believed the lack of facilities and coaching infrastructure in Scotland would have to be addressed by an independent state.[278] 

國際奧委會的代表Craig Reedie指出, 蘇格蘭將需要獲得聯合國會籍, 並可能要設置自己的奧運會資格標準, 這將需要在獨立(20163)和截止進入(20167)的期間完成.[274][275]
Gordon Brown
指到2012年英國的金牌總數, 說這顯示了包括這兩個國家的聯盟的成功.[276]
蘇格蘭運動員參與了由英國在2012年贏得的65枚獎牌的13, 但只有這些之中的3枚是蘇格蘭不受其他運動員的幫助而贏得的.[277]

Chris Hoy
爵士在20135月表示, 蘇格蘭選手可能"需要時間", "在一個新的訓練環境建設好自己", 這表示在英國隊表現良好的蘇格蘭運動員, 不會自動地在一個獨立的蘇格蘭隊轉化成那樣子.[278]
Hoy
還表示, 他相信, 在蘇格蘭基礎設施和教練的缺乏, 是一個獨立的國家必須解決的.[278]  

Status of Northern and Western Isles
Main article: Constitutional status of Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles

The prospect of an independent Scotland has raised questions about the future of the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland) and the Western Isles, island groups off the Scottish mainland.
Some islanders have called for separate referendums to be held in the islands on 25 September 2014, one week after the Scottish referendum.[279][280][281]
In March 2014, the Scottish Parliament published the online petition it had received calling for such referendums, which was supported by Shetland MSP Tavish Scott.[282]
The referendums would ask islanders to choose from three options:
that the island group should become an independent country; it should remain in Scotland; or (in the event of Scottish independence) it should remain in the UK.[283] 

北部和西部群島現狀
主要文章:Orkney, Shetland和西部群島的憲法地位
一個獨立的蘇格蘭的前景引起了人們關於北方群島(Orkney and Shetland)和西部群島, 等蘇格蘭本土外的島嶼群的未來議題.
一些島民已經要求在在2014925, 蘇格蘭公民投票後一周, 在這些離島舉行分開的公民投票.[279][280][281]
20143, 蘇格蘭議會公佈已收到的線上請願書, 要求這樣的公民投票, 這是由設得蘭群島的蘇格蘭議會成員Tavish Scott所支持的[282]
公民投票會要島民從三個選項中進行選擇: ,
島群應該成為一個獨立的國家;
它應該留在蘇格蘭;
或它應該留在英國(在蘇格蘭獨立的情況下).[283]
 

The third option would implement the conditional promise made in 2012, when an SNP spokesperson said that, in the event of Scottish independence, Orkney and Shetland could remain in the United Kingdom if their "drive for self-determination" was strong enough.[284]
Politicians in the three island groups have referred to the Scottish referendum as the most important event in their political history "since the inception of the island councils in 1975".
Angus Campbell, leader of the Western Isles, said that the ongoing constitutional debate "offers the opportunity for the three island councils to secure increased powers for our communities to take decisions which will benefit the economies and the lives of those who live in the islands".[285]
In a meeting of the island councils in March 2013, leaders of the three territories discussed their future in the event of Scottish independence, including whether the islands could demand and achieve autonomous status within either Scotland or the rest of the UK.  

第三個選項將執行在2012年所做的承諾, 當時SNP發言人說, 在蘇格蘭獨立的情況下, Orkney and Shetland 可以繼續留在英國, 如果他們的 "自決的驅動力" 是足夠強大.[284]
在這三個島群政治家們指稱蘇格蘭公民投票, 作為在他們的政治歷史上最為重要的事件, "自從島內政務會在1975年成立".

Angus Campbell
西部群島的領導人說, 正在進行的憲法辯論 "提供了這三個島嶼政務會確保了增加為我們的社區作出將有利於那些住在島上人們的經濟和生活的決定的權力的機會"[285]
20133月的島內政務會的一次會議中, 這三個地區的領導人討論他們在蘇格蘭獨立的情況下的未來, 包括島嶼能否在蘇格蘭或英國其他地區內,要求及實現自治地位.
 

Among the scenarios proposed were achieving either Crown Dependency status or self-government modelled after the Faroe Islands, in association with either Scotland or the UK.[286]
Steven Heddle, Orkney”s council leader, described pursuing Crown Dependency status as the least likely option, as it would threaten funding from the EU, which is essential for local farmers.[286]
Alasdair Allan, MSP for the Western Isles, said independence could have a positive impact on the isles, as "crofters and farmers could expect a substantial uplift in agricultural and rural development funding via the Common Agricultural Policy if Scotland were an independent member state of the EU".[287] 

提出的腳本有, 與蘇格蘭或英國聯結實, 現皇家屬地地位或跟著Faroe群島的自治模式.[286]
Steven Heddle, Orkney
的議會領袖, 描述說追求皇家屬地的地位是可能性最小的選擇,因為這會威脅到來自歐盟的資金, 這對在地的農民是很重要的.[286]
Alasdair Allan
西部群島的蘇格蘭議會成員, 稱獨立可能對島嶼產生積極的影響, 因為 "佃農和農民可以預期, 經由共同農業政策在農業和農村發展的資金上一個大幅提升, 如果蘇格蘭是歐盟洲的一個獨立成員的狀態".[287]  

In July 2013, the Scottish government made the Lerwick Declaration, indicating an interest in devolving power to Scotland”s islands.
By November, it had made a commitment to devolve further powers to Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles in the event of independence.[288] Steven Heddle called for legislation to that effect to be introduced regardless of the referendum result.[289] 

20137, 蘇格蘭政府提出 Lerwick 聲明, 表示有興趣下放權力給蘇格蘭的島嶼. 11, 它已經作出了, 在蘇格蘭獨立的情況下, 進一步下權力下放力給Orkney, Shetland and the Western 島嶼的承諾.[288]
Steven Heddle
呼籲立法使那樣的結果被導入, 無論公民投票結果如何.[289]
A day before the referendum Alistair Carmichael, the MP for Orkney and Shetland, suggested that if Shetland were to vote strongly against independence but the Scottish national vote was narrowly in favour, then a discussion should be had about Shetland becoming a self-governing crown dependency outside of independent Scotland, similar to the Isle of Man.
He stated that he did not want such circumstances to arise, "and the best way to avoid this was to vote no in the referendum."[290][291] 

公民投票前一天, Alistair Carmichael, OrkneyShetland區的議會成員建議, 如果Shetland群島投票強烈反對獨立, 但蘇格蘭國家投票是狹義的贊成,那麼應該要有一個關於Shetland成為在獨立的蘇格蘭之外的一個自治的皇家屬地的討論, 類似於Isle of Man.
他說, 他不希望出現這樣的情況, "而避免這種情況的最好辦法是在公民投票中投反對票".[290][291]
 

Universities
Scientific research

In 2012–13, Scottish universities received 13.1% of Research Councils UK funding.[292]
Dr Alan Trench of University College London has said that Scottish universities receive a "hugely disproportionate" level of funding and would no longer be able to access it following independence.
Willie Rennie, leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats, has suggested that independence would mean Scottish universities losing £210m in research funding.[293]
The Institute of Physics in Scotland warned that access to international facilities such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider, the European Space Agency, and European Southern Observatory could require renegotiation by the Scottish government.[294]
It also expressed concerns about research funding from UK charities and the reaction of international companies with Scottish facilities.[294]
The Scottish government”s education secretary, Michael Russell, has said that Scotland”s universities have a "global reputation" that would continue to attract investment after independence.[295]
In September 2013, the principal of the University of Aberdeen said that Scottish universities could continue to access UK research funding through a "single research area" that crossed both nations "boundaries.[296]
David Bell, professor of economics at the University of Stirling, said that cross-border collaboration might continue, but Scottish universities could still lose their financial advantage.[297]

大學
科研
2012-13年度, 蘇格蘭大學獲得英國研究政務會13.1%的資助.[292]
倫敦大學學院的Alan Trench博士說, 蘇格蘭的大學已得到一個 "巨大的不成比例的"的水準的資金, 而且隨著獨立將不再能夠取得.

Willie Rennie,
蘇格蘭自由民主黨領袖已表明, 獨立意味著蘇格蘭大學將失去2.1億英鎊的研究經費.[293]
在蘇格蘭物理研究所警告說, 國際設施的使用, 如歐洲核子研究中心的大型強子對撞機, 歐洲航天局和歐洲南方天文台可能需要由蘇格蘭政府重新協商.[294]
這也對來自英國慈善機構的研究經費和有蘇格蘭設施的國際公司的反應表達顧慮.[294]
蘇格蘭政府教育大臣Michael Russell曾表示, 蘇格蘭的大學有一個 "全球享譽", 獨立後將繼續吸引投資.[295]
20139, Aberdeen大學的校長說, 蘇格蘭的大學可以經由 "單一研究領域", "跨越兩個國家的邊界", 繼續使用英國的科研經費.[296]

David Bell Stirling
大學的經濟學教授說, 跨國合作會繼續下去, 但蘇格蘭的大學仍然失去他們的財政優勢[297]. 

Roger Cook of the Scotland Institute pointed out that although Scottish universities do receive a higher share of Research Councils funding, they are much less dependent on this as a source of funding than their counterparts in England.[109]
Professors from Scotland”s five medical schools have written an open letter warning that independence would mean Scotland”s researcher base being "denied its present ability to win proportionately more grant funding".[298]Questions have been asked whether Scotland, as an economy of a smaller size than the UK, would still support the same level of research activity, and what additional efforts might be required to establish a system of research councils "north of the border".[299][300]
Jo Shaw, Salvesen chair of European institutions at the University of Edinburgh, noted that in smaller states, relationships between universities and research funders become "cosy", and lead to a "corporatist" approach.[301]

蘇格蘭研究所的Roger Cook指出, 雖然蘇格蘭大學確實得到較高的額度的研究政務會的資助, 比起他們在英國的對應部份, 他們對這項資金來源的依賴少很多.[109]來自蘇格蘭五所醫學院的教授, 寫了一封公開信警告說, 獨立就意味著蘇格蘭的研究人員基礎被 "否認其現在贏得比例更多的補助資金的能力".[298]
議題已經被問到, 是否蘇格蘭, 做為一個比英國更小尺寸的經濟體, 仍然能夠支持相同水準的研究活動, 以及在"邊境的北部" 可能需要什麼樣的額外努力, 以建立研究委員會的系統.[299][300]

Jo Shaw,
歐洲機構在愛丁堡大學的Salvesen主席指出, 在較小的國家裏, 大學和研究資助者之間的關係變成了 "舒緩的", 並導致了 "社團主義" 的做法.[301]  

/////////////....... Translation to be CONTINUED ............

Student funding[edit]

See also: Tuition fees in the United Kingdom

Students domiciled in Scotland do not pay tuition fees.[302] Students domiciled in the rest of the UK are charged fees of up to £9,000 per annum by Scottish universities,[303] but those from other EU member states are not charged fees, in order to comply with the European Convention on Human Rights.[304]

If Scotland became an independent state, students from the rest of the UK would be in the position in which students from the rest of the EU are.[303] A University of Edinburgh study found that this would cause a loss in funding and could potentially squeeze out Scottish students.[303] The study suggested three courses of action for an independent Scotland: introduce tuition fees for all students; negotiate an agreement with the EU where a quota of student places would be reserved for Scots; or introduce a separate admissions service for students from other EU member states, with an admission fee attached.[303] It concluded that the EU may allow a quota system for some specialist subjects, such as medicine, where there is a clear need for local students to be trained for particular careers, but that other subjects would not be eligible.[303] The study also found that their third suggestion would run against the spirit of the Bologna agreement, which aims to encourage EU student mobility.[303]

The Scottish government stated in its white paper, Scotland”s Future, that the present tuition fees arrangement would remain in place in an independent Scotland, as the EU allows for different fee arrangements in”exceptional circumstances".[305] Jan Figel, a former EU commissioner for education, said in January 2014 that it would be illegal for an independent Scotland to apply a different treatment to students from the rest of the UK.[306] The Law Society of Scotland concurred.[307] A report by a House of Commons select committee stated that it would cost an independent Scottish government £150 million to provide free tuition to students from the rest of the UK.[305] A group of academics campaigning for independence expressed concern that the present arrangements would not continue if Scotland stayed within the UK, due to public spending cuts in England and the consequential effects of the Barnett formula.[308]

Welfare[edit]

The Yes campaign has argued that control of welfare policy would be a major benefit of independence.[309] According to the Institute for Fiscal Studies, independence would”give the opportunity for more radical reform, so that the [welfare] system better reflects the views of the Scottish people".[310] Yes Scotland and deputy first minister Nicola Sturgeon have said the existing welfare system can only be guaranteed by voting for independence.[311][312] In September 2013, the Scottish Council for Voluntary Organisations (SCVO), which represents charities, called for a separate welfare system to be established in Scotland.[313]

In November 2013, the Scottish government pledged to use the powers of independence to reverse key aspects of the Welfare Reform Act 2012, which was implemented across the UK despite opposition from a majority of Scotland”s MPs. It said it would abolish Universal Credit[314] and the bedroom tax.[315] The SNP has also criticised Rachel Reeves, Labour”s shadow secretary of state for work and pensions, for saying[316] a future UK Labour government would be even tougher on benefits than the Cameron ministry.[317][318]

In January 2012, sources close to the prime minister told The Scotsman that”a unified tax and benefit system is at the heart of a united country" and that these powers could not be devolved to Scotland after the referendum,[319] though Liberal Democrat Michael Moore said in August 2013 that devolution of parts of the welfare budget should be”up for debate".[320] Labour politician Jim Murphy, a former Secretary of State for Scotland, has argued that he is”fiercely committed" to devolving welfare powers to the Scottish Parliament, but also warned that independence would be disruptive and would not be beneficial.[321] Scottish Labour”s Devolution Commission recommended in March 2014 that some aspects of the welfare state, including housing benefit and attendance allowance, should be devolved.[322]

Feminist economist Ailsa McKay, a supporter of the Radical Independence movement, argued that an independent Scotland should change its welfare system dramatically by offering all its people a basic income.[323]

Responses[edit]

See also: List of endorsements in the Scottish independence referendum, 2014

Demonstrations[edit]

A number of demonstrations in support of independence were co-ordinated since the announcement of the referendum. The March and Rally for Scottish Independence in September 2012 drew a crowd of between 5,000 and 10,000 people to Princes Street Gardens.[324] The event was repeated in September 2013; police estimated that over 8,000 people took part in the march, while organisers and the Scottish Police Federation[325] claimed between 20,000 and 30,000 people took part in the combined march and rally.[326] The March and Rally was criticised in both 2012 and 2013 for the involvement of groups like the Scottish Republican Socialist Movement[327] and Vlaamse Volksbeweging.[328]

Five days before the referendum vote, the Orange Order – a Protestant brotherhood – held a major anti-independence march and rally in Edinburgh. It involved at least 15,000 Orangemen, loyalist bands and supporters from Scotland and across the UK,[329][330] and was described as the biggest pro-Union demonstration of the campaign up to that date.[331] A rally for UK unity, organised by the Let”s Stay Together campaign, was attended by 5,000 people in London”s Trafalgar Square on the Monday preceding the referendum.[332] Similar events were held in London, Bristol, Leeds, Cardiff, Manchester and Belfast on the day before the referendum, although there was a counter-demonstration by Yes supporters in London.[333]

 

Online campaigns[edit]

At the launch of the Yes Scotland campaign in May 2012, Alex Salmond said that the case for independence would be driven by community activism and”online wizardry".[334]

The not-for-profit and non-partisan What Scotland Thinks project has tracked poll and survey data, including online activity, during the referendum campaign. The project is run by ScotCen Social Research, which is part of NatCen, Britain”s foremost independent social research agency.[335] Using data from the Applied Quantitative Methods Network (AQMeN) research centre, the project publishes the social media activity of the two main campaigns, Yes Scotland and Better Together, by monitoring their respective Facebook and Twitter accounts since August 2013.[336] What Scotland Thinks published a report in February 2014 stating that the Yes Scotland campaign was gaining more Facebook likes. Following the launch of the White Paper on 26 November, the average gap between the two Facebook pages grew from about 8,000 to about 23,000 by February 2014. Analysis of the campaigns” Twitter accounts showed the gap between the campaigns increased from approximately 8,000 in August 2013 to 13,804 in February 2014, in favour of Yes Scotland.[336] The project published a further report in June 2014 saying that greater online activity for Yes Scotland had continued.[337]

Greater online activity amongst Yes supporters was confirmed by polling conducted by TNS BMRB in June 2014, which showed that”Yes supporters were three times more likely to have discussed the independence question online." Professor Michael Keating said in April 2014 that the pro-independence movement was visibly stronger and fighting a”ground war", while UK government supporters are fighting an”“air war” of facts and figures".[338]

The launch of online celebrity videos from both viewpoints was reported by the media in mid-July 2014. The”Let”s Stay Together – “Scotland, you”re my best friend”" YouTube video was produced by pro-union campaigners who sought to”show Scotland we [the rest of the UK] do care", and featured John Barrowman, Ross Kemp and Eddie Izzard. The video was produced by the”Let”s Stay Together" campaign that describes itself as”the campaign for everyone in England, Wales and Northern Ireland who doesn”t have a vote in the Scottish referendum, but wants to have voice in saying #letsstaytogether" on its YouTube channel.[339] The pro-independence video was produced by Yes Scotland and appeared on the campaign”s YouTube channel. Titled” on September 18th #voteYes", the video features 32”well known faces from across the independence movement", including David Hayman, Martin Compston and Stuart Braithwaite.

The pro-independence organisation National Collective was identified by the Independent newspaper as the initiators of an online hashtag campaign that began in mid-August 2014. Writing for the Independent, Antonia Molloy said that the previous”#IndyReasons" hashtag campaign served as the inspiration for the”#YesBecause" campaign that was observed on the Twitter, Facebook and Vine social media platforms. From 21 August, users were invited to explain their reasons for voting”Yes" and #YesBecause was trending on Twitter after an hour from the launch.[340] The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) reported on 22 August that a”#NoBecause" campaign emerged in opposition to the Collective.[341]

 

Debates[edit]

For more details on the first televised debate between Alex Salmond and Alistair Darling, see Salmond & Darling: The Debate.

For more details on the second televised debate between Salmond and Darling, see Scotland Decides: Salmond versus Darling.

Debates over the issue of independence took place on television, in communities, and within universities and societies since the announcement of the referendum.[342][343][344][345][346] The STV current affairs programme Scotland Tonight televised a series of debates: Nicola Sturgeon v Michael Moore,[347] Sturgeon v Anas Sarwar,[348] Sturgeon v Alistair Carmichael[349] and Sturgeon v Johann Lamont.[350] On 21 January 2014, BBC Two Scotland broadcast the first in a series of round-table debates, which was filmed in Greenock and chaired by James Cook.[351][352]

The Yes campaign repeatedly called for there to be a televised debate between UK Prime Minister David Cameron and First Minister of Scotland Alex Salmond. These calls for a one-on-one debate were dismissed by Cameron[353][354] on the basis that the referendum is”for Scots to decide" and the debate should be”between people in Scotland who want to stay, and people in Scotland who want to go".[355] Calls for such a debate were also supported by former Prime Minister Gordon Brown who said it would be a”good idea".[356] Better Together chairman Alistair Darling accused Salmond of”running scared" from debating him instead,[357] although Sturgeon stated in 2013 that a Salmond–Darling debate would take place at some point.[358] Darling refused a public debate with Yes Scotland chairman Blair Jenkins.[359] UKIP leader Nigel Farage also challenged Salmond to debate, but Farage was dismissed by an SNP spokeswoman as”an irrelevance in Scotland".[360]

After weeks of negotiation, a debate between Salmond and Darling was arranged.[125] The programme, titled as Salmond & Darling: The Debate, was broadcast by STV on 5 August 2014. A second debate between Salmond and Darling, titled Scotland Decides: Salmond versus Darling was shown on BBC One Scotland (and BBC Two in the rest of the UK) on 25 August.[361][362]

 

Accusations of BBC bias[edit]

During the campaign, there were allegations by some independence supporters that the BBC – the UK”s national broadcaster – was biased against Scottish independence.[363][364] In January 2014, a year-long academic study by researchers at the University of the West of Scotland found that coverage by both the BBC and the Scottish commercial channel STV had favoured the No campaign.[365][366][367] In March, BBC Scotland chiefs appeared before a Scottish Parliament committee to face questions from MSPs about the broadcaster”s coverage. BBC Scotland Head, Ken McQuarrie, rejected the study”s conclusions.[368]

On 29 June, hundreds joined a demonstration outside the BBC Scotland headquarters in Glasgow in protest at the BBC”s alleged bias.[369][370] On 14 September, four days before the vote, about 4000 took part in a protest march and rally at the BBC Scotland headquarters, accusing the BBC of broadcasting pro-Union”propaganda" and”lies".[363] They also called for the sacking of BBC political editor Nick Robinson.[363] A petition demanding an independent inquiry into allegations of BBC bias – on the 38 Degrees website – attracted 70,000 signatures.[363] In an interview for the Sunday Herald, Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond said he believed the BBC had been unconsciously biased against independence.[363] English journalist Paul Mason commented:”Not since Iraq have I seen BBC News working at propaganda strength like this".[363] The BBC replied that”Our coverage of the referendum story is fair and impartial in line with the editorial guidelines".[371] Speaking after the referendum, Yes Scotland chief executive Blair Jenkins said that he did not believe there was a”systemic bias" against Yes or any”corporate intent to disadvantage the Yes campaign".[364]

 

Opinion polling[edit]

Main article: Opinion polling for the Scottish independence referendum, 2014

 

Professor John Curtice stated in January 2012 that polling showed support for independence at 32%–38% of the Scottish population, a slight decline from 2007, when the SNP first formed the Scottish government.[372] By 2012, there had been no poll evidence of majority support for independence, although the share”vehemently opposed to independence" had declined.[372] According to Curtice, the polls were stable during most of 2013, with”no" leading by an average of 17% with a year to go.[373] Polling expert Nate Silver said in 2013 that the yes campaign had”virtually no chance" of winning the referendum.[374]

The gap narrowed after the release of the Scottish government white paper on independence: an average of 5 polls in December 2013 and January 2014 gave 39% yes and 61% no, once “don”t knows” had been excluded.[375] The polls tightened further after the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, stated in February that the UK government was opposed to a currency union; the average yes support increased to 43%, once “don”t knows” had been excluded.[376] There was little movement in the following months, with the average continuing to show 43% yes and 57% no (excluding don”t knows) in July 2014[377] and August 2014.[378]

In September, polls indicated that the vote would be closer than was indicated earlier. On 6 September a YouGov poll gave those in favour 47% versus 45% for those against; excluding those undecided, the figures were 51% and 49%, respectively.[379] The final polls, taken in the last few days of the campaign, indicated a lead for No of 4–6%.[380] There was no exit poll; instead, soon after polling stations had closed, YouGov released a final poll that had been taken during the day of voting, indicating 46% Yes, 54% No.[381][382]

Voting[edit]

Administration[edit]

The Scottish Independence Referendum Bill identified the Convener of the Electoral Management Board for Scotland as Chief Counting Officer for the referendum.[383] The Chief Counting Officer, Mary Pitcaithly,[384] was supported by a Counting Officer in each of the 32 local authority areas of Scotland,[384] who was typically the Chief Executive for that local authority. Each Counting Officer had a referendum team, which included:

Electoral Registration Officers. They compiled and maintained the electoral register and lists of postal and proxy voters.[384]

Presiding Officers (one per polling place).[384] They were responsible for the overall management of the polling place.

Poll Clerks.[384] They assisted the Presiding Officer at their polling place.

Polling Station Inspectors (optional).[384] They toured the area polling stations (the specific part/room of the polling place in which votes were cast).

Voting places and times[edit]

Voting took place between 07:00 and 22:00 BST[385] in”polling places",[384] which included schools, church halls, libraries and community centres. Those who were still queuing when polls closed were not denied the chance to vote.[386]

Count of votes[edit]

Counting began after polls closed. Votes from the 32 local government areas were counted and announced by each area separately.[387][388] Results came in during the early hours of 19 September, with the first result being from Clackmannanshire, and the last being from Highland.[389]

 

Results[edit]

55.3% voted against independence,[390] with a turnout of 84.6%. 28 of the 32 council areas voted”No", although the four areas that voted”Yes" (Dundee, Glasgow, North Lanarkshire and West Dunbartonshire) contained over 20% of the Scottish electorate.

The overall turnout of 84.6% was unusually high for Scotland – up to the referendum, elections to the Scottish and UK parliaments in the 21st century had turnouts of around 50–60%.[391] The most recent United Kingdom general election with a comparable turnout was in 1950, when 83.9% voted.[392] The last ballot in the United Kingdom with a higher turnout than 84.6% was in January 1910, when no women and fewer men were allowed to vote (i.e. before universal suffrage applied to UK elections).[392] Of the 32 areas, East Dunbartonshire had the highest turnout at 91.0%, and Glasgow the lowest at 75.0%.[392]

Totals[edit]

By area[edit]

Reactions to the result[edit]

Domestic reaction[edit]

Queen Elizabeth II issued a politically neutral statement following the referendum, stating that it was”a result that all of us throughout the United Kingdom will respect." She said that she and her family would support all efforts to”work constructively for the future of Scotland and indeed all parts of this country." [394]

Prime Minister David Cameron said he was”delighted" with the result, going on to say that”it would have broken my heart to see our United Kingdom come to an end and I know that this sentiment was shared not just by people across our country but also around the world".[395]

Alex Salmond, the Scottish First Minister, stated that he accepted the”verdict of the people" and called upon”all Scots to follow suit in accepting the democratic verdict of the people of Scotland". He called the referendum a”triumph for the democratic process and for participation in politics".[395] Salmond confirmed that following the result he would step down as leader of the SNP and Scottish First Minister, saying that”for me as leader my time is nearly over but for Scotland the campaign continues and the dream shall never die."[396]

Northern Ireland”s First Minister Peter Robinson and Welsh First Minister Carwyn Jones responded positively to the result. Robinson was”delighted Scotland has voted to remain in the Union".[395]

 

International reaction[edit]

 NATO: Secretary General of NATO Anders Fogh Rasmussen said that he fully respected”the choice that the people of Scotland have made".[397]

European Union European Commission: President of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso said the Scottish vote was good for a”united, open and stronger Europe".[398]

 Canada: John Baird, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Canada, welcomed the decision and praised the conduct of the referendum.[399]

 Quebec: The Premier of Quebec, Philippe Couillard, said that there were limited comparisons between Scotland and Quebec, where the sovereignty movement lost referendums in 1980 and 1995, and suggested a devolved model similar to federalism as a possible future model for the UK:”I think that if the Scots had what we have, Quebecers within Canada, they probably would be quite happy."[399] Stéphane Bédard, leader of the Parti Québécois, described himself as”disappointed" by the result.[400]

 Germany: Chancellor Angela Merkel said that,”We [the German government] have always respected the fact that this referendum was called and that the central government in London agreed to this. And now we respect the outcome of it as well". When asked how she felt about the result she replied”I will not comment on this but just smile."[401]

 Italy: Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of Italy, released a statement saying that”The Italian government, also in its capacity as duty president of the EU, hails the result of the vote democratically expressed by the Scottish people," he later sent a message to David Cameron where he said that Scotland”recognised and appreciated diversity" without”fragmenting." [402]

 Russia: In a press release following the referendum, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated:”It is an understandable and logical desire of the Scottish people for the central authorities to guarantee respect for their national and cultural identity, language and traditions and also give them more independence to take decisions on Scotland”s socioeconomic development and its standing in the united state. We have noted that the UK government has extended concrete promises in this regard. We believe that these factors are extremely important not only for Scotland but also in the general context of devolution processes."[403]

 Norway: Facing the result of the referendum, Erna Solberg, Prime Minister of Norway, stated to Norwegian broadcaster NRK she was “glad” Scotland chose to remain in union and that Scottish independence could have become challenging for Norway as a neighbouring country.[404]

 Republic of Ireland: The Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland Enda Kenny stated that the Irish government would respect the”democratic decision that Scotland should remain as part of the United Kingdom", he went on to say how”As neighbours, friends and partners across political, economic, cultural and many other spheres, relations between Ireland and Britain have never been stronger. We look forward to working with all parties across these islands in the years ahead. The Good Friday Agreement of 1998 is the historic template for harmonious and mutually beneficial development of the totality of relationships among the peoples of these islands. In particular, it has led to a transformation in relationships between the two great traditions on this island." [405]

 Spain: Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, in a video message, said that the Scottish have avoided serious consequences and”have chosen the most favourable option for everyone; for themselves, for all of Britain and for the rest of Europe."[406]

 Basque Country: Iñigo Urkullu, the Lehendakari of the Basque Country, stated on the day of the referendum that as the British Government had allowed Scotland to freely decide its own future, the responsibility of the Basque government was to”follow Scotland”s footsteps" in securing a similar agreement in Spain.[407]

 Catalonia: Artur Mas, President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, described the referendum as a model for a future vote in the Catalonia, and said”What happened in Scotland is not a setback for us, because what we really want in Catalonia is to have the chance to vote".[408] On the day after the Scottish referendum, the Catalan parliament voted to hold a”popular consultation" on Catalan independence, which is scheduled for 9 November 2014.[409] The Spanish government has said that such a referendum would be unconstitutional and that they will attempt to prevent it in the courts.[409]

 United States: The White House congratulated Scotland on their”full and energetic exercise of democracy". President Barack Obama welcomed the result, saying he looked forward to”continuing our strong and special relationship with all the people of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".[397]

Allegations of voting irregularities[edit]

Ten voters discovered that someone had voted under their names at polling stations in Glasgow,[410] a method of fraud termed “personation”, and this led to an investigation by Police Scotland.[410]

During a BBC results broadcast, Scottish Conservative leader Ruth Davidson said that No campaigners had been”taking tallies" of postal votes and that those showed that No was in the lead.[411] This resulted in complaints to the Electoral Commission because the Scottish Independence Referendum Act 2013 states that people attending proceedings related to the receipt of postal votes must not attempt to ascertain the outcome or”communicate any information" from that voting.[411] The Electoral Commission, who cannot investigate criminal allegations, passed the complaints onto Police Scotland.[411] A formal investigation was subsequently opened.[412]

According to official Russian observers the conditions under which the votes were counted were not up to international standards and that the procedure used made it impossible to check on irregularities.[413][414]

A petition demanding a second referendum, based on allegations of vote miscounting, gained more than 70,000 signatures in 24 hours. The petitioners referred to news footage that they claim showed unprocedural emptying of the boxes, a vote-counter placing Yes-votes between No-votes, an official filling in No-votes on ballot papers, and Yes-votes on top of stacks placed on No-votes sorting tables, as well as to false fire-alarms and subsequent evacuation of polling stations.[415] In response, the Chief Counting Officer, Mary Pitcaithly, declared that the referendum had been”properly conducted". An official spokesperson reiterated this point, saying that they were”satisfied that all counts throughout Scotland were properly conducted" and that incidents in the footage were being presented as a”“conspiracy” theory".[416]

 

Violence in Glasgow

On the night of 19 September, hundreds of loyalist unionists arrived to celebrate the “No” vote and reportedly attacked independence supporters who had been gathered in George Square.[417] Many of the unionists waved Union Jacks or loyalist flags and chanted”Rule, Britannia!".[417] Some made Nazi salutes and shouted racist abuse.[417] About 150 police officers were drafted in to separate the groups but some unionists broke through police lines.[417] A number of people were reportedly beaten and bottles were thrown.[418] A press photographer told The Scotsman he saw people being”kicked about" and was forced to flee after being threatened.[418] A Scottish flag was also reportedly burned.[419] The electricity generator of the Sunday Herald, the only newspaper to support independence, was set on fire by two men.[420] Police made eleven arrests and set up an “incident room”.[418] The violence was condemned by politicians from both the “Yes” and “No” camps.[418]

Increase in political activism[edit]

In the weeks following the referendum, thousands of people joined either the Scottish National Party, the Scottish Green Party[421] or the Scottish Socialist Party, parties which had all supported a “Yes” vote.[422][423] The parties claimed that many of the new members were former Labour members who had voted “Yes” in the referendum.[422] By 2 October, SNP membership had trebled from 25,000 to 75,000, making it the third largest political party in the UK.[424] Conservative MP David Mundell said that 80,000 people had signed up to their”Friends of the Union" group during the campaign.[423] These people had not necessarily become full members of the Conservative Party because they were not focused on increasing the number of”card-carrying" members.[423]

Further devolution[edit]
Main article: Smith Commission
Two days before the referendum, the leaders of the three main UK political parties publicly pledged to devolve”extensive new powers" to the Scottish Parliament.[425] They also agreed to a timetable proposed by Gordon Brown.[426] In his speech responding to the referendum results, David Cameron said that an all-party commission, chaired by Lord Smith of Kelvin, would oversee the implementation of the new powers.[425][426] Cameron also called for an answer to the West Lothian question, by removing the right of Scottish MPs to vote on legislation relating only to England.[282] This proposal was opposed by Gordon Brown, who signed a petition calling for the additional powers to be devolved without any other conditions being attached.[282][427][428]

 

See also[edit]

List of endorsements in the Scottish independence referendum, 2014

Constitution of the United Kingdom

History of Scottish devolution

History of the Scottish National Party

Politics of the United Kingdom

Legal Disclaimer    Privacy Policy    Safety & Enviorment Policy     HyperLink